Records found in abandoned research station contain a treasure trove of tree growth data dating back to 1930s
A cache of decaying notebooks found in a crumbling Congo research station has provided unexpected evidence with which to help solve a crucial puzzle — predicting how vegetation will respond to climate change.
The treasure trove of tree growth data dating from the 1930s was found by the biologist Koen Hufkens in a tumbledown building at the Yangambi Biological Station, which was once Africa’s leading forest and agriculture research institution. Combined with other records, the recovered data allows Hufkens to make improved predictions about the health of the forest.
Photo by CIFOR
Hufkens, of Ghent University in Belgium, began researching the Congo Basin about five years ago. He had planned to install a high tech monitoring station known as a carbon flux tower in Yangambi. The instruments are indispensable for observing the way plant life responds to climate change and have become standard gear for studying forests in North America and Europe, as well as a handful of locations in the Amazon
Jungles such as the Congo forest play a critical part in controlling the rate of global warming; vegetation sucks up about 25 percent of the carbon dioxide we spew out of our tailpipes and smokestacks. Scientists believe much of this CO2 ends up stored in the trunks of tropical trees, with the Congo forest absorbing about 250 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide a year.
But research shows the tropical carbon sink is faltering. This means CO2 will build up faster in the atmosphere and temperatures will rise more quickly.
Scientists are working to understand better how tropical forests respond to shifts in rainfall. The Congo forest, second only to the Amazon in size, is particularly hard to study. Poor infrastructure, unstable governments and civil war have hindered systematic research. But understanding the Congo is important — it appears to be drying out, and it is hard to say how it will behave in a drier climate.
Hufkens was hired by a research team to install the first tower in the Congo Basin, but the project soon ran out of funds. Undaunted, Hufkens looked for other ways to examine how the forest responds to changes in rainfall. A colleague mentioned the neglected …more
EJ activists celebrate move as an advance in the struggle to recognize the environmental rights of prisoners
As an environmental reporter, it’s not every day that I get to communicate good news — the state of our environment often feels pretty bleak. But today, at least, there is a victory to celebrate: Thanks to the persistence of a small group of prison ecology advocates, the support of their allies, and the assistance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), prisoners rights and environmental justice advocates have a new tool to add to their activist arsenal.
This summer, the EPA added a “prisons layer” to its Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool. Known as EJSCREEN for short, the tool can be used by the public to assess possible exposure to pollutants that might be present in the environment (i.e., land, air, and water) where they live or work.
The new layer allows the public to overlay the locations of the country’s 6,000-plus prisons, jails, and detention centers with information about environmental hazards like superfund and hazardous waste sites, something the nonprofit Human Rights Defense Center has been pushing for as part of its campaign for the EPA to consider prisoners within an environmental justice context. For the prison ecology movement, which addresses issues at the intersection of mass incarceration and environmental degradation, it could be a game changer.
Photo by Rw2, English Wikipedia
“It’s huge,” says Panagioti Tsolkas, cofounder of the Prison Ecology Project, a program of the Human Rights Defense Center. “It’s one of those things that I think if you just look at it quickly, it seems almost mundane to have added a layer to this existing map. And in the absence of a movement present to actually use it for something, it could be meaningless…. But in the presence of what we’ve been doing over the last three years, of building this national movement and organizing model of looking at prisons from an environmental justice perspective … this is pretty massive.”
The Prison Ecology Project was thinking of creating it’s own map in the absence of an EPA version. And during our own reporting on toxic prisons earlier this year, Earth Island Journal and Truthout attempted …more
Transitioning from terracide to ecolibrium
Even before war breaks out, the Earth suffers. Minerals, chemicals, and fuels are violently wrested from Earth’s forests, plains, and mountains. Much of this bounty is transformed into aircraft, gunboats, bullets, and bombs that further crater, sear, and poison the land, air, and water of our living planet. War is, and has always been, nature’s nemesis.
Photo by Marines, Flickr
In his 2001 book War and Nature, Edmund Russell observed: “Since at least the days of the Old Testament, we have seen war and interactions with nature as separate, even opposite, endeavors.... Military historians have pushed beyond studies of battles and armies to examine the impact of military institutions on civilian society — but rarely on nature. Environmental historians have emphasized the role of nature in many events of our past — but rarely in war.”
Environmental activists, however, have a surprisingly long history of confronting militarism. The environmental movement of the sixties emerged, in part, as a response to the horrors of the Vietnam War — Agent Orange, napalm, carpet-bombing — and the abiding threat of nuclear war.
In 1971, Greenpeace got its start challenging a planned US nuclear test on one of Alaska’s Aleutian Islands. The founders explained that they intentionally chose “Greenpeace” because it was “the best name we can think of to join the two great issues of our times, the survival of our environment and the peace of the world.” Greenpeace’s 1976 Declaration of Interdependence began: “We have arrived at a place in history where decisive action must be taken to avoid a general environmental disaster. With nuclear reactors proliferating and over 900 species on the endangered list, there can be no further delay or our children will be denied their future.”
But challenging the profit-driven and the power-hungry — whether they are corporate polluters or the Pentagon itself — comes with risks. In June 1975, a team of Greenpeace activists attempted to disrupt the “Whale Wars” raging off the California coast by placing their rubber boat between a pod of whales and the guns of a Russian whaler. The activists were nearly killed when the Russians fired a harpoon directly over their heads.
On July 10, 1985, while I was visiting the Greenpeace International office in Amsterdam, we received some shocking news: the Rainbow Warrior, the organization’s flagship, had …more
Recent trip to region uncovered survival of endemic salamander thought to be extinct
Due to its long evolutionary history, unique micro-climatic conditions, and the extreme luck of having survived millenia human pressure, the Mexican cloud forests represent the best of the American continent’s wild places. These small, oozing green islands lost in the mist of Mexico's Sierra Madre range have been destroyed for the establishment of corn fields and pastures, as well as by loggers. As a result, countless species of flora and fauna have been lost, ecosystem services have been diminished, and the region’s extraordinary scenic beauty has been compromised. And the threats continue: earlier this year, the Mexican government approved logging of a swath of forested land in the mountains, though the logging permit is now on hold.
Photo by Roberto Pedraza Ruiz
In the state of Querétaro, located in Central Mexico, the Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserve forms part of the grand eastern Sierra Madre range. Home to the Grupo Ecológico Sierra Gorda (GESG), the reserve houses some of the country’s last remaining cloud forests, which extend east into the neighboring state of San Luis Potosí. From towering oaks, to tree ferns, firs, sweetgums, cypresses, mexican basswoods covered thick moss, bromeliads, and orchids, these cloud forests represent authentic biological laboratories that are home to species of plants and animals only now being discovered.
The ecosystem services provided by Mexico’s cloud forests cannot be understated. The mantle of near-permanent mist that surrounds them is synonymous with groundwater recharge, ensuring rain permeates the limestone instead of running down the slope, and maintaining a water supply for the vast human population of the region. The forest also captures carbon dioxide while exhaling oxygen, assisting with climate regulation.
As the head of the GESG’s Conservation Land Program, I am charged with protecting ten private natural reserves. By purchasing land with high biological value, GESG has prioritized protection of the last cloud forests in the Sierra Gorda, home to jaguars, margays, and new species of magnolias. In these reserves, chainsaws, cattle ranching, and all other economic activities have been banned, and, as a result, wildlife has flourished. I have known these forests and mountains since I was a child, crossing them on foot and on horseback, uncovering many surprises. Visiting them is like a trip to the past, a peek at the wealth that once covered the entire eastern Sierra Madre …more
The militarization of homeland security and disaster relief in the climate change era
Deployed to the Houston area to assist in Hurricane Harvey relief efforts, US military forces hadn’t even completed their assignments when they were hurriedly dispatched to Florida, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands to face Irma, the fiercest hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic Ocean. Florida Governor Rick Scott, who had sent members of the state National Guard to devastated Houston, anxiously recalled them while putting in place emergency measures for his own state. A small flotilla of naval vessels, originally sent to waters off Texas, was similarly redirected to the Caribbean, while specialized combat units drawn from as far afield as Colorado, Illinois, and Rhode Island were rushed to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Meanwhile, members of the California National Guard were being mobilized to fight wildfires raging across that state (as across much of the West) during its hottest summer on record.
Photo by Timothy Pruitt
Think of this as the new face of homeland security: containing the damage to America’s seacoasts, forests, and other vulnerable areas caused by extreme weather events made all the more frequent and destructive thanks to climate change. This is a “war” that won’t have a name — not yet, not in the Trump era, but it will be no less real for that. “The firepower of the federal government” was being trained on Harvey, as William Brock Long, administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), put it in a blunt expression of this warlike approach. But don’t expect any of the military officials involved in such efforts to identify climate change as the source of their new strategic orientation, not while Commander in Chief Donald Trump sits in the Oval Office refusing to acknowledge the reality of global warming or its role in heightening the intensity of major storms; not while he continues to stock his administration, top to bottom, with climate-change deniers.
Until Trump moved into the White House, however, senior military officers in the Pentagon were speaking openly of the threats posed to American security by climate change and how that phenomenon might alter the very nature of their work. Though mum’s the word today, since the early years …more
Ecology and wonder on a barrier island
Assateague Island is a 37-mile-long barrier island located off the coasts of Maryland and Virginia. It stretches to about two miles at its widest and only a quarter mile at its narrowest end. Its very name conjures images of wild horses galloping along the dunes, of pristine beaches suffused with thousands of shells stretching beyond sight.
Photo by Mark Hendricks
It is a dynamic landscape at the mercy of wind and water, which constantly mold, move, and reshape it. Change is the norm for the barrier island. The lasting effects of storms, erosion, over wash, and rising sea levels are at the heart of its existence. Barrier islands such as Assateague defend the coastline by absorbing the power of storms and, like their name suggests, provide a barrier to the effects of wind and water that would otherwise devastate the mainland. They also protect wildlife and ecosystems that make these islands so unique.
Assateague is an ecological wonderland. While the island itself is less than 18,000 acres, when its boundaries are extended to include adjacent coastal bays and coterminous marine shoreline it becomes a 48,000-acre Eden. From ocean to bay one may find a multitude of habitats including beach, dune, shrubs, maritime forest, and marsh that is inhabited by equally diverse flora and fauna.
Ecological succession underpins its biodiversity. Each habitat must function for the next to thrive. Without the protection of the dunes the flora of the maritime forest would not grow; without the maritime forest the marsh would not develop. But life on Assateague is never easy, and the plants and animals that live here have adapted to the harsh conditions of the barrier island. Salt spray, limited fresh water, tidal surges, and extreme heat during the summer months make it a precarious existence, but they endure.
Scroll through the images below for a glipse at life on Assateague Island.
Photo by Mark Hendricks…more
As global demand for cocoa booms, ‘dirty’ beans from national parks enter big business supply chains
The world’s chocolate industry is driving deforestation on a devastating scale in West Africa, The Guardian can reveal.
Cocoa traders who sell to Mars, Nestlé, Mondelez and other big brands buy beans grown illegally inside protected areas in the Ivory Coast, where rainforest cover has been reduced by more than 80 percent since 1960.
Photo by jbdodane, Flickr
Illegal product is mixed in with “clean” beans in the supply chain, meaning that Mars bars, Ferrero Rocher chocolates and Milka bars could all be tainted with “dirty” cocoa. As much as 40 percent of the world’s cocoa comes from Ivory Coast.
The Guardian travelled across Ivory Coast and documented rainforests cleared for cocoa plantation; villages and farmers occupying supposedly protected national parks; enforcement officials taking kickbacks for turning a blind eye to infractions and trading middlemen who supply the big brands indifferent to the provenance of beans.
When approached for comment, Mars, Mondelez and Nestlé, and traders Cargill and Barry Callebaut did not deny the specific allegation that illegal deforestation cocoa had entered their supply chains. All said they were working hard to eradicate the commodity from their products.
Up to 70 percent of the world’s cocoa is produced by 2 million farmers in a belt that stretches from Sierra Leone to Cameroon, but Ivory Coast and Ghana are the giants, the world’s first and second biggest producers. They are also the biggest victims of deforestation. Ivory Coast is losing its forests at a faster rate than any other African country — less than 4 percent of the country is covered in rainforest. Once, one quarter was.
The ballooning global demand for chocolate means that if nothing is done, by 2030 there will be no forest left, according to the environmental group Mighty Earth which today publishes an investigation into deforestation caused by chocolate. The final, insulting irony is that locals are so poor they could never afford to eat a Mars bar.
Evidence of deforestation is not hard to find. Inside the Mount Tia protected forest, Salam Sawadougou, a Burkinabé farmer, is hacking a yellow cocoa pod off one of his plants in a four hectare (10 acre) plot. Here, the grey stumps of enormous ancient trees are all that is left of the forest.
“I burned it little …more