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Looking for Cleaner Transportation Answers

Proposed Florida ferry highlights tradeoffs between transportation upgrades and environmental protection

The roads in Tampa, Florida, have never been synonymous with safe and fast travel. They flood easily during summer rains, are constantly plagued by accidents, and pose numerous dangers for pedestrians.

City and county planners constantly try to find ways to get people and cargo to their destinations faster, and one recent effort got a good deal of positive attention. In February 2014, the Hillsborough County Commission approved a feasibility study for a high-speed passenger ferry that would operate out of south Tampa. In addition to lessening traffic in a county with an estimated population of 1.29 million, planners hoped the ferry would also bolster eco-friendly travel in the area.

 After the Harvest Photo courtesy of Southwest Florida Water Management District Planners are investigating the Fred and Idah Schultz Preserve as a possible site for the ferry terminal, raising concerns about the environmental impact of the project.

“A ferry commuter system will have positive effects on the water quality of Tampa Bay,” according to the ferry project website. “Ferries take cars off the roads, which reduces the nitrogen oxides emitted by auto[s] into our air, thus reducing nitrogen loading in Tampa Bay. Taking cars off the roads also reduces the oils, grease, and other pollutants that motor vehicles discharge onto our roadways, thereby reducing the pollution in storm water runoff that goes into the bay.”

Planners spent months searching for a spot where a terminal could be built to receive the ferry. After reviewing 14 different possible locations, they began investigating The Fred and Idah Schultz Preserve, a nature preserve in nearby Apollo Beach, as a possible terminal site.

In order to accommodate a ferry terminal, the site would require an access road and a parking lot. These site requirements got the attention of local birdwatchers, and Audubon of Florida raised concerns about the numerous bird sanctuaries near the Schultz Preserve that could be negatively affected by the changes a ferry would necessitate.

"We have concerns if this property is sold or transferred for a for-profit activity because that might set a very dangerous precedent for the environmental lands program for the county," Ann Paul, Tampa Bay regional coordinator at Audubon of Florida, told the press. “"We're hoping that we can continue to work with the developer to find an acceptable location where this excellent …more

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Is Cellulosic Ethanol the Next Big Thing in Renewable Fuels?

Ongoing efforts to commercialize this clean energy source may lead the US to a more independent energy future

For a long time it seemed like turning the inedible parts of plants into a commercially viable biofuel, known as cellulosic ethanol, was nothing more than a pipedream. The enzymes needed to release sugars from cellulose — the fiber that forms plant structure — to be fermented into ethanol were inefficient and expensive. And the cellulose found in virtually every plant, flower, tree, grass, and bush is by its very nature evolved to withstand decay.

 After the Harvest Photo by Dustin Oliver, on Flickr Corn stover, which includes a residue of stalk, leaf, husk, and cob left behind following a corn harvest, can be used as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol.

Ethanol can be derived from sugar-based, corn-based, and cellulose-based materials. In Brazil, sugarcane is the feedstock of choice, while in the United States that designation goes to corn. The starch in corn kernels easily converts into simple sugars, with the enzyme catalyzing this process costing a mere .03-cents per gallon; the sugars are then fermented into alcohol (additives make it undrinkable). Because of the relatively low cost, corn-based ethanol has been meeting America’s demand for an alternative fuel source, especially as people drive less and fuel economy improves.

Why even bother with cellulosic ethanol?

For one, there’s the questionable carbon footprint of corn ethanol, which, depending on how it is produced, can be significantly better or significantly worse than that of petroleum. Greenhouse-gas emissions from cellulosic ethanol, on the other hand, are estimated to be roughly 86 percent less than petroleum sources. And using cellulosic materials doesn’t create a food-versus-fuel scenario.

Ramping up production of the biofuel could reduce the nation’s reliance on imported oil. In 2012, the US imported about 40 percent of the petroleum it consumed, nearly three-quarters of which fueled transportation around the country. The US government also spends millions of dollars on military support to keep oil shipping lanes open; money that could go toward domestic needs instead.

Cellulosic ethanol is renewable, clean, derived from the most abundant organic compound on Earth, and could lead the US closer to energy independence. These attributes have kept researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado focused on developing this biofuel in spite of the challenges. “We stuck it out even when oil was $25 a …more

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A Journey Into the Great Bear Rainforest

Canada's rare temperate rainforest faces threats from logging and oil interests, but it can be saved yet

When we disembarked from our sailboat and onto smaller zodiacs, we were consumed by the surrounding landscape, floating on a still, glacier-formed channel with forested mountains flanking either side. Under the mist, we hummed forward into what appeared to be a closed estuary. Before us, the estuary opened up, exposing fields lush with tall grasses and wildflowers. The thick, heavy rainforest lay beyond. All around, Bonaparte gulls dipped into the shallow areas, scooping up freshly laid salmon eggs in their beaks as the salmon arrived by the thousands from the Pacific to spawn. We quietly floated around in the rain hoping to spot bear, while nearby waterfalls crashed down the mountainsides.

grizzly mom + 3 cubsPhoto by Sara SantiagoA grizzly mom fishes for salmon with her cubs. The Great Bear Rainforest stretches for more than 400 kilometers along the BC coast and is the largest coastal temperate rainforest remaining on Earth.

On this, my first trip to British Columbia’s Great Bear Rainforest along with philanthropists and conservation advocates, the estuary before us felt like one of the most remote and magnificent places I’d ever seen. High in the pines, several bald eagles looked on; the young freckled males chatted with one another from branches above. With so much openness and an abundance of resources, there was no conflict amongst them. After sitting and waiting quietly in the rain for a while, we disembarked from the small boats and headed for the field. As we congregated to walk inland, I looked back and spotted the movement of a grizzly through the mist shrouding the field opposite us. Deeper into the mist, our captain noticed she had three cubs alongside, watching their mother as she assessed the area for salmon.

War and Peace in the Woods:

According to Tides Canada, the Great Bear Rainforest stretches for more than 400 kilometers along the BC coast and is the “largest coastal temperate rainforest remaining on Earth” at 21 million acres. The same Tides report claims: “coastal temperate rainforests have always been rare and are considered more threatened than tropical rainforests.” Sixty percent of them are already gone.  

Amidst an era of global deforestation for everything from timber and paper to clearing land for mineral extraction and palm oil plantations, the Great Bear Rainforest remains an intact and functioning ecosystem, home to endemic wildlife and native …more

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California Communities Fight Back Against Possible 25-Fold Increase in Crude-by-Rail Shipments

Many cities and towns are worried about the threat of derailment and explosions

Ed Ruszel’s workday is a soundtrack of whirling, banging, screeching – the percussion of wood being cut, sanded, and finished. He’s the facility manager for the family business, Ruszel Woodworks. But one sound each day roars above the cacophony of the woodshop: the blast of the train horn as cars cough down the Union Pacific rail line that runs just a few feet from the front of his shop in an industrial park in Benicia, California.

Business by the Railsphoto by Sarah Craig/Faces of FrackingEd Ruszel’s family business is in an industrial park in Benicia, CA, where Valero Energy is hoping to build a new rail terminal at its refinery to accept 70,000 barrels of crude oil a day.

Most days the train cargo is beer, cars, steel, propane, or petroleum coke. But soon two trains of 50 cars each may pass by every day carrying crude oil to a refinery owned by neighboring Valero Energy. Valero is hoping to build a new rail terminal at the refinery that would bring 70,000 barrels a day by train – or nearly 3 million gallons.

And it’s a sign of the times.

Crude by rail has increased 4,000 percent across the country since 2008 and California is feeling the effects. By 2016 the amount of crude by rail entering the state is expected to increase by a factor of 25. That’s assuming industry gets its way in creating more crude by rail stations at refineries and oil terminals. And that’s no longer looking like a sure thing.

Valero’s proposed project in Benicia is just one of many in the area underway or under consideration. All the projects are now facing public pushback – and not just from individuals in communities, but from a united front spanning hundreds of miles. Benicia sits on the Carquinez Strait, a ribbon of water connecting the San Pablo and Suisun Bays in the northeastern reaches of the San Francisco Bay Area. Here, about 20 miles south of Napa’s wine country and 40 miles north of San Francisco, the oil industry may have found a considerable foe.

The Geography of Oil

The heart of California’s oil industry is the Central Valley – 22,500 square miles that also doubles as the state’s most productive farmland. Oil …more

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Fermenting Change

The ancient culinary craft of fermentation is bubbling up once again

Extracting nutrition via the bacteria and yeasts that live on the surfaces of food sources has traditionally enabled people all over the world to store seasonal abundance for leaner times. In a climate-constrained future, when the use of fossil fuels (and thus refrigeration) will need to be greatly reduced, fermentation could play a key role in preserving both our food and our cultural diversity.  

 FermentationPhoto by Wild Fermentation Sandor Ellix Katz gives a workshop on the craft of making sauerkraut and other fermented vegetables. Revived in workshops and community kitchens, fermentation has become one of the many “reskilling” projects taking place in grassroots cultures from Europe to the United States in response to economic and environmental drivers.

“To ferment your food,” declares American food journalist Michael Pollan, “is to lodge an eloquent protest — of the senses — against the homogenizations of flavors and food experiences. It’s a way of engaging with the world... a declaration of independence.”

That’s because this revival is not just learning how to prep and preserve cabbage: it’s also a way for people get their hands (literally) on another social narrative and activate a different relationship with life. It runs counter to an industrialized and passive consumer lifestyle “now rolling like a great undifferentiated lawn across the globe.” Fermentation requires time and intuition and participation in a transformative process where no two sauerkrauts will turn out the same. And it can bring people together in practical and surprising ways.

In England, members of Transition Plymouth, part of the worldwide Transition movement, meet regularly over their kitchen tables to chop vegetables: “Dried, tinned, bottled, cooked, irradiated, pasteurized, supermarket fare is predominantly dead food — deliberately made in order to ‘protect’ our health and enhance shelf life,” explains Colin Trier, one of the group's activists. “Our fermentation workshops have served many purposes: to reintroduce us to making our own live foods; bringing us together as a community exchanging recipes and skills; seeking out and sharing local sources of supply; and developing resilience through home preservation of much more than jam.”

Kimchi Photo by DevitreeCrunching down: an assortment of raw chopped and squeezed vegetables
is pushed under the liquid for the famous Korean fermented dish of kimchi
at a workshop taught …more

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Life on the American Prairie Reserve

Ranchers and researchers collide in an ambitious effort to convert Montana ranchland to a 3 million-acre wildlife refuge

A pickup truck stops within a dozen feet of us. We are sitting at a round dining room table inside the house watching the truck through the sunlit window. Two men step out and take a few steps forward and I lunge down the carpeted stairs to meet them at the door. We say hello and are all in a jolly mood. The two men, like us in the house, have probably just finished work for the day. They asked whether the Holzheys were around and I realized they were looking for the family that used to live here. I had moved in about three weeks ago with a crew of five other young people to collect data on the American Prairie Reserve (APR), a private wildlife refuge that is buying out ranchers to aggregate more than 3 million acres of land and create a fully functioning prairie ecosystem. We were all, ranchers and researchers alike, on the front lines of the change that is happening in this sparsely populated and tree-less stretch of land in northeastern Montana. 

American Prairie ReservePhoto by Morgan Cardiff When fully realized, the American Prairie Reserve will include 3 million acres of land, making it significantly larger than Yellowstone National Park.

I think the two men may have known that the Holzheys had already sold their ranch, but perhaps the family had left more suddenly than anticipated. The men said they had come to talk a little shit to their friends (perhaps for selling out, now that I think about it), but instead found the family gone and the land silent and stripped of machinery. Six young scientists, sprawled comfortably in the family's former residence, must have been a sight to them. One of the men asked what we were doing there, and when I told him that we were collecting data for the APR, his face lost all signs of the joking mood that he had come with. The men said goodbye and departed with a somber air.

When fully realized, the APR will be significantly larger than Yellowstone National Park and much more remote. The project has been described by National Geographic as an American Serengeti, and has been in the works in various forms, by various organizations, since the 1980s. With over 305,000 acres acquired so far, the …more

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Greed and Resistance in Sarawak’s Rainforest

In Review: Money Logging: On the Trail of the Asian Timber Mafia

A version of this review appeared in The Huffington Post 

Sarawak, the Malaysian province on the island of Borneo, has long been one of the six world regions with the highest biodiversity. An average hectare of Sarawak rainforest contains more tree species than all of Europe. The local Penan communities have names for more than 1,300 of the plants they live with. The forest is also home to orangutans and tree leopards, hundreds of bird species, and frogs that can glide up to 20 meters through the air.

Deforestation in SarawakPhoto by Waxk Land is cleared for oil palm in Sarawak.

The greed and corruption of a small clique are now turning Sarawak’s rainforests into a monoculture of oil palms and hydropower reservoirs. Money Logging: On the Trail of the Asian Timber Mafiaa gripping new book by Lukas Straumann, the executive director of the Bruno Manser Fund, documents the local politics, international complicity, and desperate resistance in the struggle over one of the world’s last paradises.

At the heart of Sarawak’s deforestation sits one man: Abdul Taib Mahmud, the politician who has ruled the island province for more than 50 years as a minister, chief minister, and now governor. Starting in the 1960s, Taib handed out valuable logging concessions to his friends and family without any checks and balances. Within his first six years in power, the powerful politician handed out concessions for an area almost the size of Belgium to his family members and associates.

The bribes which changed hands for the concessions allowed Taib to invest in a business empire at home and abroad, engage in a lavish lifestyle, and pay for generous election hand-outs. In his book, Money Logging, Lukas Straumann estimates the fortune of the Taib family at $15 billion. The family empire includes industrial and banking conglomerates in Sarawak, a stake in 400 businesses overseas, and iconic properties in San Francisco and Seattle.

Cutting down rainforest is not a sustainable business model, and the loggers of Sarawak soon lost patience with slow-growing secondary forests. Since the 1990s, they have increasingly turned deforested areas into oil palm plantations – vast monocultures that were completely devoid of any other trees or animals. By 2005, oil palm plantations covered 42,000 square kilometers in Malaysia – more than the land area of …more

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