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Unseen Plastics in Our Water

How citizen science informed a new study that revealed the extent of microplastic and microfiber pollution in marine ecosystems

The movement to stop plastic from polluting our environment has picked up incredible momentum in recent months. The UN has declared the entire year dedicated to reducing ocean plastic pollution, National Geographic has launched a multi-year Planet or Plastic? campaign, the EU may ban single-use plastics, and California has several pieces of legislation in the works to stop pollution from plastic straws, bottle caps, and even to reduce ocean pollution from plastic microfibers shed from clothing in the wash.

photo of woman with plastic pollutionphoto by Dianna Cohen Marine research scientist Amy Barrows led a citizen science study of coastal adn open ocean microplastic pollution through which volunteers collected more than 1,300 water samples across the world.

Plastic Pollution Coalition (PPC), a project of Earth Island Institute, has been at the forefront of this movement since 2009. Now, with more than 700 organizations and businesses in 60+ countries in the coalition, PPC uses digital organizing to further the goal of working toward a world free of plastic pollution. Because grassroots efforts are at the heart of the work the PPC does, it often supports citizen science initiatives that aim to map plastic pollution, publish original research, and push legislation to protect our planet.

In the past six months, PPC has been highlighting the work of coalition members who are using citizen science. This includes groups that are charting litter all over the world via an app called Litterati; youth in the Bahamas who dissect fish, learn about microplastics, and turn that knowledge into action by working with local government; and folks who are gathering water samples from all over the world to create a multi-year global study on microplastics in the world’s oceans.

Citizens Afield

The promise of citizen science lies not only in its contributions to research, but also in its ability to transform our relationships with the natural world.

I went to Joshua Tree National Park because I was tired of despair. Not that the deserts of Southern California are particularly uplifting places as of late.

>Read More…

The last initiative, involving global water samples, could not have been possible without citizen science. Abby Barrows, a PPC scientific advisor and marine research scientist with Adventure Scientists, a group that leverages the skills of the outdoor adventure community to gather data on the environment, and College …more

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Hawai’i First US State to Ban Use of Neurotoxic Pesticide Chlorpyrifos

As the EPA refuses to take action on a known public health hazard, the island state shows the way forward

Yesterday, Hawai'i Governor David Ige signed into law Senate Bill 3095 banning all uses of chlorpyrifos, a neurotoxic pesticide that US Environmental Protection Agency administrator Scott Pruitt has refused to prohibit despite the EPA’s own pronouncement that the pesticide poses an unacceptable risk to humans.

photo of agriculture hawaiiPhoto by moonjazz / Flickr Following years of grassroots organizing by activists, Hawai'i Governor David Ige signed a law yesterday banning the use of the neurotoxic pesticide chlorpyifos across the state. The ban takes effect next year.

This new law is the culmination of nearly six years of grassroots organizing by rural communities in Hawai’i that face daily pesticide exposure.

Chlorpyrifos is part of a class of chemicals, known as organophosphates, that were developed before World War II as a nerve gas that could halt neurotransmissions in a soldier’s brain. Chlorpyrifos kills bugs by disrupting their brain functions in a similar way.

Several studies have shown that exposure to the pesticide, which can make its way into food, air, and drinking water supplies, can affect humans, especially children who can suffer from impaired cognitive abilities and reduced IQ after chronic exposures. Chlorpyrifos was banned for indoor use in 2001 due to its impacts on children’s developing brains, but it continues to be the most heavily used insecticide in the US with 4 to 8 million pounds applied annually.

On a pounds-per-acre basis, the heaviest applications of chlorpyrifos in the US has been on the Hawaiian island of Kauai, where several large agribusiness have been conducting open-air experiments on genetically modified seeds. (Read “The Ghost in the GMO Machine.”)

“This law is our message to the EPA and to the chemical companies that we will no longer tolerate being ground zero for the testing of toxic pesticides that are damaging our children’s health and poisoning our environment,” Gary Hooser, former Majority Leader of the Hawai'i Senate and founder of the Hawai'i Alliance for Progressive Action (HAPA), said in a statement yesterday after Ige signed the bill.

HAPA was a part of a coalition of local residents, teachers, scientists, health professionals, and advocates, including Hawai'i Center for Food Safety, Hawai‘i SEED, and Pesticide Action Network, that worked for years to push forward the legislation.

Hooser, who lives on Kauai, guided the “Protect our Keiki” coalition of diverse residents from across the islands through the complex political process that resulted in the …more

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Basking on the Brink

An "unholy" river in India may be the last, best hope for one of the world's largest and most imperiled crocodilians

Dead gharials began washing up on the banks of India’s Chambal River in December 2007. Over the following weeks, the body count grew. By mid-January, the dead reptiles — some the length of two tall men, lined up end to end — numbered in the dozens. By March, more than 110 of the skinny-snouted creatures had been found dead, most along a 30-kilometer (18-mile) stretch of river.

photo of a gharialsphoto Dhritiman Mukherjee Hatchling gharials from multiple females congregate near the dominant male, likely their father, on the territory where they hatched.

At the time, there were thought to be just 200 to 250 breeding-age gharials (Gavialis gangeticus) left in the world. And while only a dozen or so of the victims had reached reproductive age, many were close. A loss of more than 100 of them represented a major blow for a population already in crisis. Having been classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as critically endangered even before the die-off began, the species was clearly in trouble — including here on the Chambal, its last remaining stronghold.

Among the international team of veterinarians and crocodile experts that convened to investigate was Jeffrey Lang, a conservation biologist previously at the University of North Dakota. When Lang traveled to India that March, he was concerned about the die-off. But he was also driven by what he saw as a window of opportunity, opened by the crisis, to take a closer look at an understudied species. What he found were questions, loads of them — not just about what was killing gharials, but about how the animals lived in the first place.

“We opened a Pandora’s box. There was all this stuff we didn’t know,” says Lang, now a scientific advisor for the Madras Crocodile Bank Trust and the Gharial Conservation Alliance. To help fill the many knowledge gaps surrounding these imperiled creatures, Lang — along with conservationist Rom Whitaker and croc researcher Dhruvajyoti Basu — launched a research project on the Chambal that would reveal many new details about basic gharial natural history and ecology, from their movements and breeding behaviors to the many threats they face over the course of their lives.

Even as the mystery lingered over the 2008 die-off, study results began to provide clues about how best to protect the gharial — both from the potential for similar catastrophes and from the growing pressure of development that threatens the species’ very existence.


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Kinder Morgan Pipeline is Never Going to be Built, Vow Activists

Deal to buy Trans Mountain project flies in face of Trudeau’s promise to uphold the Paris Accord and rights of First Nations

On Tuesday, less than two months after Kinder Morgan suspended its controversial Trans Mountain pipeline project, the Canadian government announced a plan to purchase the project and terminal assets for $4.5 billion from the American company, unleashing a storm of criticism over the move.

photo of protestPhoto courtesy of Zack Embree/SumOfUsJust days prior to the announcement, a new study found that further expansion of Canada’s tar sands mines would contribute to carbon lock-in and long-term oversupply of oil, slowing the world’s transition to a low-carbon future.

“Today’s agreement will help advance Canada as an energy leader, as a place where good projects get built,” Canada’s Natural Resources Minister Jim Carr said while making the announcement that the government would pay Kinder Morgan for what it has already spent on the expansion project as well as for the existing Trans Mountain pipeline. “This is yet another step in building an energy future with Canadians where the environment and economy go hand-in-hand,” Carr said.

The agreement, according to the Department of Finance Canada, means that construction of the pipeline will resume this summer. And judging by reaction to the announcement, protesters will be ready to fight it.

The existing Kinder Morgan line, which was built in 1953, can currently carry about 300,000 barrels of crude per day. The expansion project would increase the pipeline’s capacity by nearly 600,000 barrels of oil per day. The expanded pipeline, which would transport oil from the tar sands mines of Alberta to an export terminal on the coast of British Columbia in the city of Burnaby near Vancouver, would result in a massive expansion of the ecologically destructive oil mining process.

On April 8, Texas-based Kinder Morgan Inc. had suspended work on the project, saying that it had become too risky a venture for the company following intense pressure from grassroots activists in addition to court challenges by the British Columbia government and First Nations along the pipeline route.

The company has now agreed to work with the Canadian government to find a third party buyer for the entire Trans Mountain system by July 22.

Trudeau’s government has declared the pipeline is in the “national interest,” and essential to the economic wellbeing of a country apparently desperate to get its vast oil reserves to international markets where it can command a much higher price for crude oil than the current domestic rate. A gap that, it says, represents billions of dollars in …more

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Biggest Meat and Fish Companies Fail to Measure or Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Protein producers may be 'jeopardizing Paris climate goals,' according to new index

Meat and fish companies may be “putting the implementation of the Paris agreement in jeopardy” by failing to properly report their climate emissions, according to a groundbreaking index launched today.

photo of beef cattlePhoto by K-State Research and Extension Though livestock production accounts for 14.5 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than half of the world's largest 60 meat and fish producers are failing to document their environmental impact.

Three out of four (72 percent) of the world’s biggest meat and fish companies provided little or no evidence to show that they were measuring or reporting their emissions, despite the fact that, as the report points out, livestock production represents 14.5 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions.

“It is clear that the meat and dairy industries have remained out of public scrutiny in terms of their significant climate impact. For this to change, these companies must be held accountable for the emissions and they must have credible, independently verifiable emissions reductions strategy,” said Shefali Sharma, director of the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy European office.

The new Coller FAIRR Protein Producers Index has examined the environmental and social commitments of 60 of the world’s largest meat and fish producers and found that more than half are failing to properly document their impact, despite their central role in our lives and societies.

Many of the names in the index will be unfamiliar, but their consolidated revenues of $300 billion cover around one-fifth of the global livestock and aquaculture market — roughly one in every five burgers, steaks, or fish.

The companies looked at by the index include giants like the Australian Agricultural Company, which has the biggest cattle herd in the world; the Chinese WH Group, the largest global pork company; or the US’s Sandersons, which processes more than 10 million chickens a week.

Many of them run vertically integrated systems, sourcing meat from contracted farmers around the world, processing it themselves through their own slaughter and packing houses, and then selling on to frontline, more familiar companies such as McDonalds, Walmart, Nestle and Danone.

But a close examination by the Farm Animal Investment Risk and Return (FAIRR) group has shown that, despite their critical part in our food system, these companies appear to be neglecting some of their social responsibilities.

The food system, according to FAIRR, is “very sensitive to changing public sentiment,” and really large sums of investor money …more

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Legal Battle in Germany Leaves Diesel in the Dust

German court empowers cities to ban diesel vehicles due to dangerous health effects

In 2009, Volkswagen launched an aggressive advertising campaign in the US under the banner of "clean diesel," presenting its new range of diesel cars as an eco-conscious choice that offered "efficiency without compromise." This strategy for selling diesel vehicles was new to the US but had already succeeded in Europe. Ever since the Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997, European governments and car manufacturers have collaborated to promote diesel as a sustainable alternative to gasoline.

photo of VW in EuropePhoto by Dave Pinter The ruling may prove historic for the European environmental movement because despite public outcry over the Volkswagen "clean diesel" car scandal, European governments have been extremely reluctant to act against car manufacturers.

German manufacturers lobbied the EU to support the technology, arguing that diesel, which produces 15 percent less CO2 than petrol, provides an affordable and efficient means to lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Most EU governments readily agreed, implementing subsidies and tax breaks to keep diesel cheaper than petrol. As a result, the production of diesel vehicles has skyrocketed over the last 20 years. There are 15 million diesel cars in Germany today — representing more than 30 percent of all vehicles on the nation's roads — and similar figures can be cited for the other EU countries.

The evidence is now clear, however, that "clean diesel" is nothing but an oxymoron. Despite its promotion by the auto industry as an eco-friendly fuel, diesel has led to extreme levels of air pollution across most European cities. Diesel cars may produce less CO2 than those run on petrol, but they release more than four times as many nitrogen oxides (NOx) — dangerous gases that produce smog and aggravate or induce a variety of health conditions, ranging from asthma, emphysema, and bronchitis to stunting in children and strokes. In Germany alone, NOx pollution causes an estimated 6,000 to 13,000 premature deaths per year.

On February 27, a date that may prove historic in the European environmental movement, the highest administrative court in Germany ruled that cities have a right to ban the use of diesel vehicles. The court determined that citizens' rights to a healthy environment trump the rights of car manufacturers, upholding prior bans enacted by local courts.

The scale of the diesel crisis in Europe was obscured for many years. But in 2015, diesel-related health costs were dramatically exposed when a US investigation revealed that Volkswagen’s diesel cars had only been …more

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Bison Make a Surprising Comeback on the Dutch Coast

Endangered species can thrive in habitats other than forests, paving way for their return

Eighty years after they were hunted to extinction, the successful reintroduction of a herd of wild European bison on to the dunes of the Dutch coast is paving the way for their return across the continent.

bison on dunePhoto by Ruud Maaskant/Courtesy of Wisentproject European bison live freely in the Dutch dune area, the Kraansvlak, in the Netherlands.

The largest land-living animal in Europe was last seen in the Netherlands centuries ago, and was wiped out on the continent by 1927. Despite successful efforts to breed the species again in the wilds of Poland in the 1950s, and renewed efforts in the last decade in western Europe, the European bison remains as endangered as the black rhino.

The 7,000 bison, or bison bonasus, that exist in Europe today are often given supplementary feed by rangers to get through the winter months.

Yet a study of a herd of 22 bison living in Kraansvlak, 330 hectares of dunes and natural ponds making up part of the Zuid-Kennemerland national park in north Holland, is now offering a more optimistic assessment of the bison’s chances of survival.

A series of research papers from the Dutch study further questions the belief that European bison are forest-dwelling creatures, a development that opens up their reintroduction to a whole host of new European environments.

Nature organisations in Sweden, Switzerland and the UK are looking on with interest, and knowledge is being shared with established projects in Spain, France and Germany.

“People thought, ‘Bison on dunes? The crazy Dutch’,” said Yvonne Kemp, the bison project leader in the Zuid-Kennemerland park, and the co-author of the latest published research. “But it is working, you can see the herd, they are having calves and doing well.

“The general view for decades was that European bison were a forest animal. But we were not so sure. We believed that they are not so suited to forests because today, still in winter time, in lots of areas, they feed the bison. They come to the hay, which is not super natural.”

Three bison were first introduced into the Kraansvlak, in the municipality of Bloemendaal, in April 2007, and a further three in 2008, at the start of a 10-year attempt to fight back against encroaching grasses and shrubbery stamping out the area’s biodiversity.

Managed by the water company, PWN, which exploits the natural filtration system of the dunes to supply north Holland, there was a pressing need for grazers to …more

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