Our antiquated hard rock mining law is a hurtful reminder of the worst of 19th century thinking
Some things, like the US Constitution, embody timeless principles. The General Mining Law of 1872, which celebrated its 114th birthday on May 10, is not one of those things. Instead it is a hurtful and embarrassing reminder of the worst of nineteenth-century thinking.
Hurtful because this antiquated law is harming our communities and the environment to this day. Embarrassing because it is still the law of the land for hardrock mining.
Photo by Mor/Flickr
Signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant before Custer’s Last Stand, the 1872 mining law was intended to do two things:
- Encourage the extraction of minerals by giving them away and making mining the top priority among all potential uses of public lands, and
- Fulfill America’s “Manifest Destiny” — i.e. extirpate Native Americans — by “selling” mineral bearing lands at rock bottom prices to “settle” non-arable public lands.
If you wonder whether the federal government can succeed at anything it intends to do (and you discount the moon landing, the interstate highway system, Social Security, etc.), wonder no more. The General Mining Law of 1872 gloriously achieved its intended goals by:
Giving away more than $300 billion in publicly owned gold, copper and other metals, and;
Selling (known under the law as “patenting”), for no more than $5 per acre, mineral-bearing publicly owned lands equal in area to the state of Connecticut.
Although there is a temporary patenting moratorium in place that must be annually renewed by Congress, the Mining Law to this day allows companies to buy mineral-bearing public lands for no more than $5 per acre — nineteenth century prices— and to extract hard-rock minerals like gold, silver, and uranium from public lands without making royalty payments to the taxpayer (unlike other extractive industries like coal, oil or natural gas).
Birding apps offer urban residents a unique path to engage with nature
When we think about the natural world, we don’t normally picture urban spaces. Most of the time, we probably conjure up meadows or forests, maybe with a stream or pond — or maybe the ocean coastline. Yet wildlife and natural areas can also be found, sometimes abundantly, in cities and suburbs, and increasingly this is where we are most likely to interact with them.
Photo by Michael Leland
Citizen science organizations offer city-dwellers a unique way to engage with nature, beyond, say, having a picnic in a park, or taking a stroll along an urban waterway. These groups put interested citizens to work conducting scientific research, allowing them to make a contribution to the science that supports conservation — and to have fun doing it.
“Citizen scientists currently play active roles in a wide range of ecological projects, and their contributions have enabled scientists to collect large amounts of data at minimal cost,” writes Rachel E. McCaffrey, of theSchool of Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson in Urban Habitats, an online ecology journal. “Because bird-watching is popular among members of the general public, bird-monitoring projects have been among the most successful at integrating citizen scientists.” Projects gathering data from bird monitoring are also among some of the more common urban citizen science projects.
The biggest boost to “citizen birding” participant numbers has come from the use of eBird, an online reporting, cataloging, and data sharing application developed by a team at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, and partners at the nonprofit National Audubon Society. In May 2015 alone, eBird participants entered data for more than 9.5 million bird observations from more than 100 nations around the world.
Both well-known and novice birders have been using eBird to tap into their passion while also contributing to research. Noah Stryker, a famous birder and adventurer who set a world record in 2015 for the number of bird species seen in a year, writes: “Since its launch in 2002, eBird has revolutionized the way birders worldwide report and share their observations… Articles have been written about eBird with mind-bending titles like, ‘eBird Changed My …more
Many observers fear that the corporations will shift their huge liabilities for restoring land that has been mined to taxpayers
Coal’s share of the U.S. energy market is rapidly plunging. Low-cost fracking-generated natural gas has overtaken the use of coal at America’s power plants. Impending implementation of the Obama administration’s proposed Clean Power Plan, which would place stringent regulations on coal-fired power plant emissions, has also helped to drive coal production to its lowest level in decades. Government sources predict further decline.
Photo by Jack Pearce
Fifty U.S. coal companies have filed for bankruptcy since 2012. Competition and more stringent environmental regulations played a role in this decline. But, just before coal prices collapsed, speculating top producers borrowed billions to finance unwise acquisitions. Now, unable to pay loan interest and principal, they have sought bankruptcy protection to restructure US$30 billion in debt. The bankrupt companies include Arch Coal, Alpha Natural Resources, Patriot Coal and Jim Walter Resources.
Last month Peabody Energy Corp., the world’s biggest private-sector coal producer, followed suit. Peabody seeks to restructure $8.4 billion in debt. Its capitalization has fallen from $20 billion in 2011 to $38 million at the time of bankruptcy.
Amid this turmoil, many observers fear that bankrupt coal companies will be able to shift their huge liabilities for reclamation, or restoring land that has been mined, to taxpayers.
Congress passed the Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act, or SMCRA, in 1977 to prevent such a scenario. But, in my view, state and federal coal regulators have failed to ensure that coal companies have enforceable financial guarantees in place, as the law requires.
I have interacted with the coal industry for 40 years, first as a government enforcement lawyer and then litigating issues relating to coal mine reclamation cases on behalf of conservation organizations and coalfield communities. I believe that if the unfunded liabilities of bankrupt coal companies are not covered by new guarantees and additional companies seek bankruptcy protection, there is a real chance that taxpayer-funded billion-dollar bailouts will be necessary to cover their cleanup costs.
Planning for reclamation
SMCRA was designed to prevent bankrupt coal companies from foisting onto …more
Kenyan orphanage rescues and rehabilitates young elephants stranded by poaching, returns them to the wild
Edwin Lusichi holds degrees in theology and computer science but has spent the last sixteen years working with orphaned youngsters. He monitors their diet, health, and general well-being until they are ready to go back into the wild. You see, Lusichi’s orphans are elephants and he is an elephant-keeper.
Photo by Kamweti Mutu
“I came because I needed a job. But after some time it became a passion,” admits Lusichi, head keeper at the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust (DSWT) in Nairobi, Kenya. He is one of thirty-odd elephant keepers who nurture a similar number of infant elephants and rhino at any given time.
The Trust was established in 1997 by Daphne Sheldrick in memory of her late husband, David Sheldrick, founding warden of Kenya’s Tsavo National Park. Informally known as the elephant orphanage, DSWT is one of only two foster centers in Africa that rescue and rehabilitate young elephants before returning them to the wild. (The other is the Elephant Orphanage Project in the suburbs of Lusaka, Zambia which cares for young elephants before relocating them to the Kafue National Park.)
Every morning Lusichi, 32, and his team don their green dust coats and khaki bucket hats, and take their young charges to browse in the thickets of Nairobi National Park, which surrounds the center.
Elephants calves cannot live without milk during their first three years of life. The youngest orphans have to be fed a specially-blended milk formula every three hours using gigantic bottles carted around in a wheelbarrow. As the calf's intake of vegetation increases, the frequency of milk feeds is reduced. It took Daphne Sheldrick, who was born and raised in Kenya, almost three decades to create the perfect milk formula. She ultimately determined that coconut oil is the best substitute for elephant milk-fat.
In the evening, the elephants are escorted back to base where each one has its own sleeping stockade — sometimes the keepers stay with them overnight. “The young ones, as in under one-and-a-half years old, have keepers with them at night,” explains Lusichi.
The baby elephants are rescued from all parts of the country after having been separated from …more
As Big Oil abandons the Arctic, pressure mounts on Obama to do more on climate change in the region
Sometimes it is hard to find good news on the climate. Take a quick look at a couple of today’s stories:
According to Australian researchers, five tiny Pacific islands, which are part of the Solomon islands, have completely disappeared due to rising sea levels, in what is being described as the “first scientific confirmation of the impact of climate change on coastlines in the Pacific.” Another six islands have had large swathes of land washed into the sea too.
Photo by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Elsewhere, one in five of the world’s plant species is said to be threatened with extinction, with climate change one of the factors along with farming and construction.
There is also bad news for caffeine addicts, with the news that scientists are warning that coffee is “at risk of running out by the end of the century as a result of intensive farming and climate change.”
Sometimes all this bad news seems overwhelming.
But there is good news too, which gives immense hope to those fighting Big Oil, especially in the Arctic: Big Oil is in full retreat from the region.
Once the Arctic was the seen as the last big untapped frontier for the industry. But rather than being full of black gold, the Arctic has proven to be one of the most expensive black holes for the industry ever.
Bloomberg reported this morning that after spending a whopping $2.5 billion for drilling rights in US Arctic waters, oil companies such as Shell and ConocoPhillips have quietly relinquished their rights to some 2.2 million acres. This equates to nearly 80 per cent of the leases they bought nearly a decade ago.
This is truly significant: Peter Kiernan, the lead energy analyst at The Economist Intelligence Unit told Bloomberg: “Arctic exploration has been put back several years, given the low oil price environment, the significant cost involved in exploration and the environmental risks that it entails.”
Oil giant Shell, which has already blown $8 billion on its misguided Arctic folly, relinquished 274 leases in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, although it is holding onto …more
But 2,000 new plant species are discovered every year, report reveals
One in five of the world’s plant species is threatened with extinction, according to the first global assessment of flora, putting supplies of food and medicines at risk.
Photo by CIFOR
But the report also found that 2,000 new species of plant are discovered every year, raising hopes of new sources of food that are resilient to disease and climate change. New finds in 2015 included a giant insect-eating plant first spotted on Facebook and a 100-tonne tree hidden in an African forest.
The State of the World’s Plants report, by experts at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, reveals that there are currently 390,000 species of known plants, with more than 30,000 used by people. However, more than 5,000 species have invaded foreign countries and are causing billions of dollars of damage every year.
“Plants are absolutely fundamental to humankind,” said Professor Kathy Willis, director of science at Kew, who led the new report. “Plants provide us with everything — food, fuel, medicines, timber and they are incredibly important for our climate regulation. Without plants we would not be here. We are facing some devastating realities if we do not take stock and re-examine our priorities and efforts.”
The report is the first of what will be an annual benchmark analysis to set out what is known — and not known — about plants and highlight critical issues and how they can be tackled. “I am reasonably optimistic,” said Willis. “Once you know [about a problem], you can do something about it. The biggest problem is not knowing.”
The biggest factors threatening plant species with extinction are the destruction of habitats for farming (31 percent) — such as palm oil production and cattle ranching, deforestation for timber (21 percent) and construction of buildings and infrastructure (13 percent).
Climate change is currently a smaller factor — 4 percent — but is likely to grow. “I suspect we won’t actually see the full impact until 30 years down the line as it takes so long for plants, especially trees, to produce their offspring,” said Willis. One important by The Guardian – May 10, 2016
How biologists are racing to revive the ‘king of fish’ in Norway
High above the Bolstad Fjord, perched on a scaffold set into the cliff-top hut, Helge Furnes watched with the intensity of an osprey for a monstrous salmon to enter his trap of netting laid out on the river bottom. A pair of heavy stones, connected to the net by a system of ropes and pulleys, was hoisted up to the bottom of the hut. Once the fish entered the trap, Furnes yanked the end of the rope, setting off a chain reaction: The stones dropped towards the ground, their falling weight pulled up the lines tied to the corners of the net, and the trap closed, capturing the fish within.
Photo by Kevin Bailey
This method of fishing for salmon on the Bolstad Fjord, known as sitjenot, dated back at least 150 years. Furnes’s father also harvested the Vosso salmon. The fish are mostly gone now, and Furnes no longer fishes the sitjenot. The fishing huts sit, still perched on the cliffs or on poles above the fjord, like ghostly sentinels watching over the passage of the remaining salmon.
The Vosso salmon is the stuff of legends. Once they were the largest Atlantic salmon in the world, based on average weight. Some behemoths tipped the scales at more than 36 kilograms. Catches of salmon in the Vosso River system were relatively stable for hundreds, maybe thousands of years, averaging about 12 tons per year. Then suddenly, in the late 1980s, the numbers began to nose-dive. The fishery collapsed in 1991 and was closed in 1992. For all practical purposes, the wild stock of Vosso River salmon went extinct. The “King of Fish,” as they had been called, were no more.
The decline of Atlantic salmon was not unique to Vosso — similar decreases in other European salmon stocks occurred at about the same time. But what happened in Norway after the collapse probably couldn’t happen anywhere else.
When oil was discovered in the North Sea in the 1960s, Norway struck it rich. Enormous wealth was generated by sovereign control of the oil fields, leading to a system of taxation on oil extraction and direct production by the state-owned oil company. The Norwegians invested generously in infrastructure, social welfare, …more