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Marine Food Chains at Risk of Collapse,  Study of World’s Oceans Finds

Important ecosystems could be massively damaged by 2050 unless greenhouse gas emissions and localized pollution is drastically reduced, researchers say

The food chains of the world’s oceans are at risk of collapse due to the release of greenhouse gases, overfishing and localized pollution, a stark new analysis shows.

A study of 632 published experiments of the world’s oceans, from tropical to arctic waters, spanning coral reefs and the open seas, found that climate change is whittling away the diversity and abundance of marine species.

Staghorn Coral (with evidence of Coral bleaching :-( )photo by SarahDepper, on FlickrStaghorn Coral (with evidence of coral bleaching)

The paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found there was “limited scope” for animals to deal with warming waters and acidification, with very few species escaping the negative impact of increasing carbon dioxide dissolution in the oceans.

The world’s oceans absorb about a third of all the carbon dioxide emitted by the burning of fossil fuels. The ocean has warmed by about 1°C since pre-industrial times, and the water increased to be 30% more acidic.

The acidification of the ocean, where the pH of water drops as it absorbs carbon dioxide, will make it hard for creatures such as coral, oysters and mussels to form the shells and structures that sustain them. Meanwhile, warming waters are changing the behavior and habitat range of fish.

The overarching analysis of these changes, led by the University of Adelaide, found that the amount of plankton will increase with warming water but this abundance of food will not translate to improved results higher up the food chain.

“There is more food for small herbivores, such as fish, sea snails and shrimps, but because the warming has driven up metabolism rates the growth rate of these animals is decreasing,” said associate professor Ivan Nagelkerken of Adelaide University. “As there is less prey available, that means fewer opportunities for carnivores. There’s a cascading effect up the food chain.

“Overall, we found there’s a decrease in species diversity and abundance irrespective of what ecosystem we are looking at. These are broad scale impacts, made worse when you combine the effect of warming with acidification.

“We are seeing an increase in hypoxia, which decreases the oxygen content in water, and also added stressors such as overfishing and direct pollution. These …more

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Can New Zealand’s Wilderness Survive Ecotourism?

New biking trails have opened up areas of stunning natural beauty to visitors, but at what cost?

If the wilderness areas, the national parks, and the forest reserves can make a profit, then conservation will pay for itself—surely the logic is irrefutable. The US National Park Service DirectorJonathon Jarvis is recorded as saying: “The paradigm of allowing nature to rule the parks is no longer viable.” If this is true, then does the only alternative solution lie in allowing business models to govern wilderness areas?

A lone biker on a mountain dirt roadPhoto by Richard Rossiter/used with permissionThe Old Ghost Road is a soon to be completed 80km bicycling trail through what was largely untouched native forest and wilderness in the South Island's Mokihinui River basin.

Indeed, the idea that running wilderness areas along business lines is good for the environment is rapidly gaining currency worldwide. Certainly, New Zealand, with its clean, green image has embraced the holy grail of eco-tourism with both hands and feet. One of the latest New Zealand ventures into wilderness tourism, the Old Ghost Road Cycle trail, demonstrates perfectly how eco-tourism can ostensibly aid conservation efforts.

The Old Ghost Road is a soon to be completed 80km bicycling trail through what was largely untouched native forest and wilderness in the Mokihinui River basin on the northwest of New Zealand’s South Island. This area is home to many of New Zealand’s most endangered species including, kiwi, kaka, whio (blue ducks), giant land snails (Powelliphanta), weta, and other endangered invertebrates and frogs. Formerly, human interaction and impact in the area was minimal. The scars of nineteenth century gold prospecting in the area have largely healed. The wild terrain enabled the few visitors to have a true wilderness experience and the endangered fauna were largely left in peace, at least from direct human interference.

In the twenty-first century the sanctity of this extensive wilderness area was once more endangered, this time thanks to plans to create a 14 km long hydroelectric dam on the Mokihinui River. A joint campaign brought together the Department of Conservation, the NZ Forest and Bird Society and numerous mountain biking, rafting and community interests who worked together to save the area from eternal damnation. Not only did they save the forest but their campaign brought new life and hope to an embattled community.

Yes, humans also are under threat in this part of the …more

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We Held a Memorial for the Thousands of Victims of Climate Change in South Asia. Here’s Why

Climate policies in the US have an impact on public health in countries like India and Pakistan

The weather is already turning. There’s that certain nip in the air and soon the 100°F temperatures that San Francisco has been seeing will be forgotten as we get swept into what everyone is hoping will be a rainy winter. But climate activists like me can’t welcome fall without first acknowledging the devastation that this past summer has wrought upon the planet.

 boys sleeping indoors on a hot summer dayPhoto by Amir Jina Extreme summer heat has killed more than 2,500 people in India and at least 1,200 people in Pakistan.

For someone like me, who grew up in India but now lives in California, it’s impossible to forget that this summer has taken more than 3,500 lives in South Asia. Which is why, last month, about two dozen of us gathered for a new end-of-summer ritual organized by Brown and Green: South Asians for Climate Justice and 350SF: Mourning the climate victims of summer —More than 2,500 in India and 1,200 in Pakistan. Temperatures soared so high in South Asia this year that there were 65,000 heat stroke patients in the city of Karachi, Pakistan alone.

Every time someone posted on social media about how much they loved this unusually warm weather in the Bay Area, I cringed knowing that this warmer weather was having deadly repercussions back home. But it wasn’t long before the consequences of rising temperatures reached our doorstep too. The fires in Northern California were raging that week in mid-September when we held our vigil, and unlike the drought, it was a more-than-subtle reminder of the chaos wrought by global warming.

That Friday, September 18 evening, we gathered near San Francisco’s Asian Art Museum, and started the vigil off with a Hindi song about “scorching afternoon heat, dry rivers, fields” by local musicians Vivek Anand  and Bishu Chatterjee. We then walked through downtown San Francisco carrying a banner saying “Climate Change Kills,” and holding photos of those who had died. (Finding names of the dead has been particularly difficult, because many of the victims were unrooted laborers and homeless people who usually have the least access to shelter and resources.)

Many people stopped to take photos as we walked by. We stopped from time to time to talk with them. Some were aware of …more

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The Strange, Sere Bones of An Ancient Landscape

Images of and reflections on the dry landscape and living history of the Panoche Hills

Interstate 5, running down the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California cuts a dividing line between the flat valley floor and dry hills rising to the west. Passengers in thousands of cars and trucks, seemingly desperate to pass by as quickly as possible on the highway to Los Angeles, can look east over a landscape of huge fields and orchards.  On a clear day, when the wind sweeps away the valley's omnipresent dust, you can see the Sierras. 

photo of a landscapephotos by David BaconClick or tap this photo to see more…

To the west, though, the land is hidden behind a succession of eroded ridges. Beyond them rises the strange, sere landscape of the Panoche and Griswold Hills. 

Today California is dry, in the throes of a four-year drought. Even in more "normal" times in the past, however, these hills were as dry as the rest of the state is now. You can feel it, reaching down and crumbling the soil in your hands. It is a dryness that perhaps predicts what we will soon see elsewhere.

This is grazing land. Narrow blacktop roads snake up from the valley floor past old barns and fences. The cattle have worn grooves and paths that meander horizontally across worn hillsides. Some are covered in stubble, while others have no remnants of grass at all. Then, cutting down across their face are the old watercourses. Now they're dry, but their dramatic vertical sides testify to the power of the flash floods that, in a rare heavy rain, carry away the rocks and thin soil.

photo of a cylindrical structure in a landscape

The San Joaquin Valley floor to the east is largely made up of the sediment washed down Panoche Creek and its tributaries. On the creek bottom, trees and a few isolated homes are patches of green in a brown vista that stretches for miles. But everything here speaks of the lack of water. 

A small field of grapevines or berries, now dry, is a memory of some effort to seek out an income beyond a ranch's animals. A fence line stretches up into hills bleached blindingly white. Another fence, like those in Mexico's Sonora desert, is a barrier …more

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The Truth Behind That “Crappy” Cup of Coffee

Civet cats caged and force-fed in large numbers to feed the world’s growing demand for kopi luwak

I saw my first civet cat on the last day of my holiday in Bali, Indonesia. It was tethered to a wooden tabletop outside of an upscale coffee shop, squinting at the afternoon sun as it struggled to sleep. Tourists swarmed around the animal, poking its fur and snapping photos. It didn’t take much to see that this civet cat was scared, and very stressed.

photo of a caged civetWorld Animal ProtectionA caged civet cat at a "Luwak" coffee farm in Sumatra, Indonesia. World Animal Protection carried out an investigation on the practice of civet farming to make coffee in 2011.

When I approached the coffee shop owner to express my disgust at the animal’s treatment, he brushed me off. Then the owner thrust a pamphlet into my hands about “kopi luwak,” the type of coffee he sold inside the shop. “This is how we make our living,” he said, gesturing to the civet cat on the table.

As I came to learn, kopi luwak is a specialty coffee made from beans that have passed through the digestive tracks of civet cats, or “luwaks” in the Indonesian language. Despite it repulsive origins, coffee aficionados claim that kopi luwak has an extraordinary taste resembling chocolate or caramel. This translates to an extraordinary cost: a cup of kopi luwak can sell for $30 to $100 in the United States. But what many people don’t realize is that kopi luwak is produced at an even higher cost to civets.

a civet being fed coffee cherriesWorld Animal ProtectionA caged civet cat at a "Luwak" coffee farm is fed coffee cherries in Sumatra, Indonesia.

Many traders and cafes sell the coffee as sourced in the jungle from the droppings of wild, free-roaming civets. However, undercover investigations by animal rights activists and journalists have shown that in many cases, the animals are held captive in cages where they are force-feed coffee cherries to keep up with the growing demand for kopi luwak.

Civets are shy, nocturnal creatures, which find being held in tiny cages is incredibly stressful. Ashley Fruno of PETA Asia-Pacific explains that video footage has shown caged civet cats exhibiting neurotic behavior, such as spinning, head-bobbing, and pacing. “This shows that the animals are going …more

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Scarlet Macaws Fly Free Again in Mexico’s Wilds

Scientists and an amusement park work together to reintroduce an iconic bird in the rainforests of Chiapas and Veracruz

Mexico is one of the top ten countries in the world in terms of bird diversity, but poverty, crime, and corruption can make it a difficult place for conservationists to work. In the remnant rainforests of Veracruz and Chiapas, however, the restoration of an iconic tropical bird that had all but vanished from the country provides reason for hope: Nearly extirpated from Mexico’s forests for decades, scarlet macaws are once again filling the canopy with their raucous calls.

Two scarlet macaws Photo by Eric Carlson/FlickrWild scarlet macaw populations in Mexico have plummeted to 2 percent of their historic numbers due to deforestation and rising human encorachment of their forest habitats.

The scarlet macaw’s range extends from southern Mexico through Central America to much of northern South America. While the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List categorizes this brilliantly hued bird as a species of “Least Concern” because it remains fairly common in many parts of its range, in Mexico it has suffered severe population declines.

 Threatened by capture for the pet trade as well as habitat loss due the region’s rising human population and the clearing of rainforest for cattle pastures, the scarlet macaw’s range in Mexico is now only 2 percent of what it was historically. As of 2013, only about 250 wild scarlet macaws were estimated to remain in the country and the Mexican government has classified it as endangered.

Now, a bold reintroduction project spearheaded by a group of scientists and their unlikely partner: an amusement park, is seeking to reverse the decline of wild scarlet macaw populations in Mexico.

Xcaret Ecopark is a Disney-esque theme park located on Mexico’s Caribbean coast that has been breeding a captive population of macaws for over two decades. In 2009, the Guinness Book of World Records recognized it for having the most macaws born in captivity in one year. The park’s record-breaking breeding program is now providing birds that can be released back into Mexico’s remaining rainforests.

Of course, reintroducing macaws back into the wild is not as simple as driving a truckload of birds from the amusement park out into the middle of the woods and letting them go. Before the first macaw can ever be released, a long list of questions must be answered to determine whether the project …more

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White-Nose Syndrome Continues to Kill Bat Populations Across North America

Efforts to get the most threatened bat species listed as endangered fail

Near the border of New Jersey and New York, a small bat tucked in its wings and hung from the eave of a forest cabin. The mammal was taking a well-deserved rest during the daylight hours, awaiting the sun’s dip below the horizon in order to hunt the plentiful insects that nighttime promises. These animals, sometimes instilling fear and reminders of Bram Stoker’s creation, are dying in record numbers across the United States. This little bat, barely the size of a baseball, was hanging upside down and simultaneously hanging on for its species’ survival.

close up of hands holding a bat with it's wing stretched outPhoto courtesy of Florida Fish and WildlifeA Florida Fish and Wildlife biologist inspects a bat for WNS. Recent research shows that the fungal disease has caused extensive local extinctions of bat populations.

The fungal disease known as white-nose syndrome (WNS) has been wreaking havoc in the United States for almost a decade, ever since it was “accidentally transported here by humans” from Eurasia, according to Bat Conservation International’s official website. Currently, WNS can be found in 26 states and five Canadian provinces. Three other states have confirmed evidence of the fungus, known as Pseudogymnoascus destructans. The exact number of dead bats is unknown, but thousands became millions some time ago.

“We’re still learning an awful lot about the fungus and the disease, and how it may manifest itself differently in different species,” said Katie Gillies, director of the U.S./Canada Imperiled Species Program for Bat Conservation International. “So we are seeing very significant declines in some species, particularly the northern long-eared bat, the little brown bat and the tri-colored bat. And we’re seeing more variable declines but differences in how the disease impacts species … like the Indiana bat and the big brown bat.”

Gillies called Pseudogymnoascus destructans a cave-loving fungus that needs cold, moist environments to grow. Caves in the Northeast are perfect locations; however, WNS is so pervasive that it has dipped as far south as Alabama and Mississippi and as far west as Oklahoma.

Bat Conservation International describes the fungus as being able to invade the skin of the bats. Both their hydration and hibernation cycles are disrupted, and eventually they produce the characteristic white marks on the face and wings that give the disease its namesake. …more

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