An open process among diverse stakeholders has reduced tensions surrounding the predator
In scientific circles, a “wicked problem” is one that has so much complexity and so many variables — often contradictory and changing over time — that it is considered essentially unsolvable. When gray wolves were reintroduced into the Northern Rockies by the federal government in 1995 and 1996, the social and political reaction, and overreaction, sparked fiery controversy and litigation that has yet to subside. Wolf recovery and management fits squarely into the “wicked problem” category, and prevents the animals from ever being treated as just another wildlife species on the landscape.
Photo by Aaron Tubbs
The dysfunction became apparent in the wolf plans developed by the northern Rocky Mountain states, which were required by the US Fish and Wildlife Service before it would turn over wolf management to state wildlife agencies. Montana and Idaho immediately instituted highly divisive recreational wolf hunting seasons under pressure from the livestock industry, which has traditionally controlled wildlife management in the West. The resumption of hunting was intended to substantially reduce wolf populations. Meanwhile, Wyoming adopted a plan under an agreement with the USFWS that allowed wolves to be killed on sight in 84 percent of the state (although in September 2014 a federal judge ruled the Wyoming plan inadequate to protect wolves and re-listed them under the Endangered Species Act, a ruling which the state is now fighting). That wolf recovery and management is driven primarily by regional politics was laid bare when — after a string of court victories by conservation groups keeping the wolves from being prematurely removed from federal ESA protection — the US Congress, in an unprecedented move, voted to remove wolves from the ESA in most of the northern Rockies. The delisting came in the form of a rider to a defense budget bill, which President Obama signed in April 2011.
When wolves began to disperse from Idaho into the Pacific Northwest, they were entering, to some extent, friendlier territory. An April 1999 survey commissioned by several Oregon conservation groups showed that 70 percent of Oregonians favored the return of wolves. After dispersing Idaho …more
South African conservationists are increasing efforts to rescue and rehabilitate orphans
Rhino calves, orphaned by poaching, are suffering increasingly violent attacks at the hands of poachers and are showing worrying signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), according to wildlife rehabilitation expert Karen Trendler, who leads the national Rhino Response Strategy on behalf of South Africa's Endangered Wildlife Trust.
“We're seeing clear signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in orphaned calves,” says Trendler. “PTSD has been scientifically documented in elephants that have been through a traumatic poaching, and we're now seeing manifestations of trauma here too.”
Photo by Ann and Steve Toon
According to Trendler, the level of violence in poaching incidents involving rhinos with calves is escalating: “A few years ago the calves [involved in poaching incidents] were dehydrated, they were hanging around the mother, but they weren't injured. We're now seeing calves being injured, and injured very badly. Also, we're finding in the last six to eight months that poachers are now taking calves with small horns,” she adds.
“The situation changes according to the age of the calf and the circumstances of the poaching,” she explains. “We're finding the youngest calves, up to four months old, will do absolutely anything to get back to the mother when she is poached. So we're getting a lot of very young calves with facial injuries, because the poachers just hit out to get rid of the calf. Older calves will run away, wait a while, then try to get back to the mother. So we're seeing a lot of wounds in chests and forelegs. The oldest calves will keep running, but they've got a bigger horn, so very often the poacher will shoot the mother then take aim at the calf, so a lot of the older calves have spinal injuries or injuries in the hind quarters.”
Last year South Africa lost 1,215 rhinos, according to government figures (in 2007 the figure was a mere 13). Many rhino conservationists believe these official figures significantly understate the real scale of the problem: Many carcasses are not found, and others have deteriorated too much to be positively identified as poaching victims. Furthermore, a significant proportion of South Africa's rhinos are in privately owned reserves, and in some cases their owners …more
You’ve heard of Cecil’s dentist killer, but for tens of thousands of other exotic animals, internet marketplaces like eBay and Craigslist are the biggest threat
If you live in the continental US, have $4,850 and an Internet connection, this large, full-body, mounted African lion, with a shaggy red mane, can be yours.
“This is a fantastic buy for someone who wants a good Lion,” the eBay ad reads. “This mount will make an awesome decoration in any home, office, hunting lodge, lake house, lodge homes, cabin, bar, etc.”
Photo by Vince O'Sullivan
The listing makes no mention of how the animal was procured, nor whether it was legally imported. So perhaps this stuffed, reclining lion for $870 is better suited to the discerning trophy-buyer. Its seller, African Game Industries, assures you that this lion was imported with all of the necessary permits and was inspected by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). It does not offer to produce the paperwork.
On Thursday, in the wake of public outcry over the illegal killing of Zimbabwe’s most recognizable lion, Cecil, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution to act on illegal hunting.
A frustrating fight
But controlling wildlife trafficking is increasingly difficult for law enforcement, in no small part due to online marketplaces such as eBay and Craigslist. Although many popular digital trading posts have adopted regulations to attempt to curtail illegal sales of plants and animals, enforcement can be a nightmare.
The Office of the US Trade Representative estimates that wildlife trafficking and related environmental crimes are worth anywhere between $70bn and $213bn annually.
The Obama administration’s attempt to fight trafficking has been frustratingly slow, as far as animal welfare groups such as the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) are concerned.
Last year, pointing to the catastrophic uptick in the slaughter of African elephants and the US’s position as the world’s second largest ivory market, FWS said it would ban the commercial trade of African elephant ivory. It wasn’t until last weekend, however, while visiting Kenya, which Obama formally proposed the new restrictions, which are now subject to …more
In the absence of a workable government action plan, citizens have begun recycling and rebuilding on their own
Even before the data was calculated, Dr Alka Sapkota, a young environmental expert with the Nepal government, knew the administration would be unable to efficiently clear the massive amount of debris left behind by the April 25 earthquake that killed more than 9,000 people and injured more than 23,000. The figures confirmed it: Nepal’s Kathmandu valley generated approximately 3.94 million tons of debris. “An equivalent of nearly 11 years of waste was generated in one day,” Sapkota is quick to remind me when I probe her about the delay in clearing the debris.
Photo by courtesy of Asian Development Bank
A major chunk of the detritus in this unplanned metropolis consists of construction material: bricks, concrete, wood, tin, broken furniture, wires, electronic equipment, and other scrap. Most buildings in the area are made of reinforced concrete, or mud and mortar with either tiled or corrugated iron sheet roofs. “Eighty percent of this debris in Kathmandu will be recycled – with or without the government’s help,” assures Sapkota, who works for the government’s Solid Waste Management Technical Support Centre.
The Nepalese government plans to pull down all the severely damaged buildings, sort out concrete and bricks that cannot be reused, crush these materials and create recycled bricks or filling material for roads and other structures. Debris that is contaminated by lead infused paint or contains asbestos, pesticides, and acids is to be appropriately processed before being reused or cast away.
But so far government has no clear action plan in place on how this will get done. It is still working on formulating a process that will enable it to collect the debris, process it, and employ it in the reconstruction effort.
But even if a plan were put in place, does Nepal have the equipment and know-how for such an ambitious task?
“We have some equipment, I mean, there are equipment in the country, some of this is privately owned and really expensive to take on hire, but if we can get them and formulate a good policy we have enough expertise,” Sapkota says. However, …more
The remote monument protects the single largest native grasslands in the state
At dawn I lit out toward a cluster of sandstone spires overlooking the Carrizo Plain National Monument at the southern end of California’s San Joaquin Valley. I pulled out my binoculars and scanned the grasslands cloaked in tidy tips, California poppies and owl’s clover. I counted 81 Tule elk that morning browsing on the carpet of wildflowers. It felt like a timeless moment in old California.
In 2001, President Bill Clinton deemed Carrizo Plains a national monument, protecting the single largest native grasslands remaining in California. At 250,000 acres, the monument has come to be known as “California’s Serengeti” for its herds of Tule elk, pronghorn antelope and black-tailed deer. In fact, its Tule elk herd is one of the fastest growing herds in the state, with about 400 animals. The monument harbors more endangered species than anywhere else in the Golden state. Those animals include the California condor, antelope ground squirrel, giant kangaroo rat, San Joaquin kit fox and blunt-nosed leopard lizard.
The sweeping landscape is also the biggest protected habitat along the Pacific Flyway, a major migration route for North American birds, making it a bird watcher’s paradise. Roughly 200 avian species have been recorded on the Carrizo Plain. It’s especially good for raptors and the ravens that harass them.
But it isn’t all plains. This 50-mile stretch of protected land includes the Temblor and Caliente Mountain Ranges and Soda Lake, the largest natural alkali lake in the state. This lake is a unique sight, whether it’s full of water and frolicking birds, or dried out with dust devils spinning across it.
All of this natural beauty and diverse wildlife sits in California’s Central Valley, better known for industrial agriculture than for wildflowers. This location may help explain why, as the Bureau of Land Management puts it, the “Carrizo Plain National Monument is one of the best kept secrets” in the state.
I typically make three to four trips a year out to the Carrizo Plain. Its silence, dramatic landscapes, flora and fauna are intoxicating. Every time I head out there I see and photograph something I hadn’t seen the time before. I’m already planning …more
California Parks are urging campers to clean up after themselves, in a novel effort to protect the endangered marbled murrelet
When campers register at the headquarters of Big Basin Redwoods State Park in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, they receive the usual trail map and, for the past couple years, instructions on how to be “crumb clean” and why this matters to the fate of the endangered marbled murrelet, a seabird about the size of a robin.
California State Parks launched its “keep it crumb clean” campaign to educate visitors about the importance of never feeding wildlife and picking up after themselves. The campaign has been propelled forward by a 2014 lawsuit settlement agreement with the nonprofit Center for Biological Diversity, which had claimed the government was failing to protect the bird under its new general plan for Big Basin. The planned expansion of public uses and infrastructure in the bird’s habitat exacerbated the species’ risk for extinction, according to the lawsuit.
Photo by USFWS
“Education is such a big part of the solution,” says Shaye Wolf, a wildlife biologist and the climate science director at the Center for Biological Diversity. “Most park visitors would be heartbroken to learn their trash is contributing to the decline of this beautiful, endangered seabird … What we’re trying to do with the settlement is educate and increase public participation in the solution.”
The marbled murrelet’s low reproductive rate makes it especially vulnerable. A mature female lays only one egg high in the mossy branches of ancient coast redwoods (or other conifer such as firs) that stretch up the Pacific coastline from central California into Oregon, Washington, and as far north as Alaska. The parents take turns incubating the egg and flying miles away to the ocean to eat herring, smelt and anchovies and then returning to feed the nestling. A mere month or so after hatching, a chick will make its first flight to the ocean. That is, if it survives till then.
Murrelets face a mighty foe in corvid predators — mainly Steller’s jays and ravens that are intelligent enough to know food follows humans. When these birds finish foraging around people, they notice murrelet nests high in the trees and attack the eggs and chicks. Jays are a natural part of …more
Hundreds of businesses including eBay and Nestle back federal rules to cut emissions and switch away from coal to clean energy
Hundreds of businesses including eBay, Nestle and General Mills have issued their support for Barack Obama’s clean power plan, billed as the strongest action ever on climate change by a US president.
The rules, announced on Monday, are designed to cut emissions from power plants and have been strengthened in terms of the long-term ambition as originally proposed by the president last year, but slightly weakened in the short-term in a concession to states reliant on highly-polluting coal.
Photo by clarkmaxwell/Flickr
White House adviser Brian Deese said the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules represented the “biggest step that any single president has made to curb the carbon pollution that is fuelling climate change”. The US is the world’s second biggest carbon emitter after China.
The rules are expected to trigger a “tsunami” of legal opposition from states and utilities who oppose the plans, which will significantly boost wind and solar power generation and force a switch away from coal power. Republican presidential hopefuls moved quickly to voice their opposition, saying they would be economically damaging.
But 365 businesses and investors wrote to 29 state governors to strongly support the rules, which they said would benefit the economy and create jobs.
Mindy Lubber, who is attending the launch ceremony of the rules on Monday and is the president of Ceres, a network of investors that organized the letter, said: “The clean power plan is the right measure at the right time. It’s a flexible, practical and economically sound blueprint to transition America toward a low-carbon future.”
Other signatories included Unilever, L’Oreal, Levi Strauss, L’Oreal, Staples, renewable energy company SunEdison and Trillium Asset Management, which manages $2.2bn in assets. It is the largest group of businesses to support the rules so far.
The final rules propose a 32 percent cut in carbon emissions from power plants by 2030 on 2005 levels, up from the initial proposal of 30 percent. However states will only have to comply by 2022 rather than 2020 as originally proposed, and will be able submit their plans on meeting the targets by 2018 …more