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Electric Vehicle Manufacturing Holds Unique Potential for Bolivia and Paraguay

Exporting electric vehicles could give two South American nations a rare niche in the global economy and deter fossil fuel development

An exploratory study by Brazilian energy experts projects that Bolivia and Paraguay together have the potential to become a global center of electric vehicle (EV) manufacturing, use, and export, thanks to their unique combination of natural resources. The study asserts that development of an EV industry would not only provide a massive economic boost to these two poorest South American nations, but also reduce their vehicle carbon footprints to near zero, while helping to forestall further fossil fuel exploration and development.

photo of Uyuni Salt FlatsPhoto by Government of Bolivia Ministry of Mining State mining workers move lithium-rich salts evaporated from brines by the sun on the Uyuni Salt Flats, the largest lithium stores and largest salt flats in the world.

Bolivia’s Uyuni Salt Flats are home to the world’s largest deposits of lithium, the critical component of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, which are used in EVs as well as laptops and cell phones. Meanwhile, Paraguay enjoys a 400 percent surplus of renewable electricity, drawing on its 50 percent share of the world’s most productive renewable energy generator, Itaipu Dam, split with neighboring Brazil.

Published in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews last year, the study envisions an EV battery manufacturing industry based in Bolivia, integrated with EV automaking plants in Paraguay’s growing industrial parks. It recommends both countries first replace their national vehicle fleets with EVs, gaining scale, then export EV batteries and vehicles to Latin American and world markets. Led by Dr. Ildo Sauer of the University of São Paulo, the authors calculate the cumulative benefits of replacing national fleets with EVs over a 10-year period at $996 million for Paraguay and $1.373 trillion for Bolivia. They project CO2 reductions of 8398 gigagrams for Paraguay and 9420 gigagrams for Bolivia  — equivalent to taking 4.1 million cars off the road for a year.

Goldman Sachs calls lithium, a silver-white salt, “the new gasoline.” With global demand for EVs skyrocketing, lithium prices have doubled since 2009 to $6,000 per ton and are projected to rise an additional 20 percent by 2017. The study calculates that the lithium in Uyuni Salt Flats is enough to build 3.38 billion EVs — three times the number of internal combustion vehicles on the road today. The lithium is dissolved in shallow pools of liquid brine …more

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Portugal Runs for Four Days Straight on Renewable Energy Alone

Zero emission milestone reached as Iberian country is powered by just wind, solar and hydro-generated electricity for 107 hours

Portugal kept its lights on with renewable energy alone for four consecutive days last week in a clean energy milestone revealed by data analysis of national energy network figures.

Electricity consumption in the Iberian country was fully covered by solar, wind and hydro power in an extraordinary 107-hour run that lasted from 6.45am on Saturday 7 May until 5.45pm the following Wednesday, the analysis says.

Windmills on a mountaintop on PortugalPhoto by André B/FlickrAs recently as 2013, renewables provided only about 23 percent of Portugal’s electricity. By 2015 that figure had risen to 48 percent.

News of the zero emissions landmark comes just days after Germany announced that clean energy had powered almost all its electricity needs on Sunday 15 May, with power prices turning negative at several times in the day – effectively paying consumers to use it.

Oliver Joy, a spokesman for the Wind Europe trade association said: “We are seeing trends like this spread across Europe - last year with Denmark and now in Portugal. The Iberian peninsula is a great resource for renewables and wind energy, not just for the region but for the whole of Europe.”

James Watson, the CEO of SolarPower Europe said: “This is a significant achievement for a European country, but what seems extraordinary today will be commonplace in Europe in just a few years. The energy transition process is gathering momentum and records such as this will continue to be set and broken across Europe.”

As recently as 2013, Portugal generated half its electricity from combustible fuels, with 27 percent coming from nuclear, 13 percent from hydro, 7.5 percent from wind and 3% from solar, according to Eurostat figures.

By last year the figure had flipped, with wind providing 22% of electricity and all renewable sources together providing 48 percent, according to the Portuguese renewable energy association.

While Portugal’s clean energy surge has been spurred by the EU’s renewable targets for 2020, support schemes for new wind capacity were reduced in 2012.

Despite this, Portugal added 550MW of wind capacity between 2013 and 2016, and industry groups now have their sights firmly set on the green energy’s export potential, within Europe and without.

“An increased build-out of interconnectors, a …more

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An Unhappy Birthday for the 1872 Mining Law

Our antiquated hard rock mining law is a hurtful reminder of the worst of 19th century thinking

Some things, like the US Constitution, embody timeless principles. The General Mining Law of 1872, which celebrated its 114th birthday on May 10, is not one of those things. Instead it is a hurtful and embarrassing reminder of the worst of nineteenth-century thinking.

Hurtful because this antiquated law is harming our communities and the environment to this day. Embarrassing because it is still the law of the land for hardrock mining.

Aimus river after acid mine drainage spillPhoto by Mor/FlickrBecause how the mining law is framed, Gold King mine isn’t being held responsible for last year's Animas River acid mine drainage disaster. It's the American taxpayer who has to pay for the clean up.

Signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant before Custer’s Last Stand, the 1872 mining law was intended to do two things:

  1. Encourage the extraction of minerals by giving them away and making mining the top priority among all potential uses of public lands, and
  2. Fulfill America’s “Manifest Destiny” — i.e. extirpate Native Americans — by “selling” mineral bearing lands at rock bottom prices to “settle” non-arable public lands.

If you wonder whether the federal government can succeed at anything it intends to do (and you discount the moon landing, the interstate highway system, Social Security, etc.), wonder no more. The General Mining Law of 1872 gloriously achieved its intended goals by:

Giving away more than $300 billion in publicly owned gold, copper and other metals, and;
Selling (known under the law as “patenting”), for no more than $5 per acre, mineral-bearing publicly owned lands equal in area to the state of Connecticut.

Although there is a temporary patenting moratorium in place that must be annually renewed by Congress, the Mining Law to this day allows companies to buy mineral-bearing public lands for no more than $5 per acre — nineteenth century prices— and to extract hard-rock minerals like gold, silver, and uranium from public lands without making royalty payments to the taxpayer (unlike other extractive industries like coal, oil or natural gas).

And, to this day, under the mining law anyone with a hard-rock mining claim has “the right to mine” that trumps all other potential uses of …more

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Citizen Science in the City?

Birding apps offer urban residents a unique path to engage with nature

When we think about the natural world, we don’t normally picture urban spaces. Most of the time, we probably conjure up meadows or forests, maybe with a stream or pond — or maybe the ocean coastline. Yet wildlife and natural areas can also be found, sometimes abundantly, in cities and suburbs, and increasingly this is where we are most likely to interact with them.

photo of Birds on FencePhoto by Michael Leland The biggest boost to “citizen birding” participant numbers has come from the use of eBird, an online reporting, cataloging, and data sharing application.

Citizen science organizations offer city-dwellers a unique way to engage with nature, beyond, say, having a picnic in a park, or taking a stroll along an urban waterway. These groups put interested citizens to work conducting scientific research, allowing them to make a contribution to the science that supports conservation — and to have fun doing it.

“Citizen scientists currently play active roles in a wide range of ecological projects, and their contributions have enabled scientists to collect large amounts of data at minimal cost,” writes Rachel E. McCaffrey, of theSchool of Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson in Urban Habitats, an online ecology journal. “Because bird-watching is popular among members of the general public, bird-monitoring projects have been among the most successful at integrating citizen scientists.” Projects gathering data from bird monitoring are also among some of the more common urban citizen science projects.   

The biggest boost to “citizen birding” participant numbers has come from the use of eBird, an online reporting, cataloging, and data sharing application developed by a team at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, and partners at the nonprofit National Audubon Society. In May 2015 alone, eBird participants entered data for more than 9.5 million bird observations from more than 100 nations around the world.

Both well-known and novice birders have been using eBird to tap into their passion while also contributing to research. Noah Stryker, a famous birder and adventurer who set a world record in 2015 for the number of bird species seen in a year, writes: “Since its launch in 2002, eBird has revolutionized the way birders worldwide report and share their observations… Articles have been written about eBird with mind-bending titles like, ‘eBird Changed My …more

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Who Will Foot the Cleanup Bill for Bankrupt Coal Companies?

Many observers fear that the corporations will shift their huge liabilities for restoring land that has been mined to taxpayers

Coal’s share of the U.S. energy market is rapidly plunging. Low-cost fracking-generated natural gas has overtaken the use of coal at America’s power plants. Impending implementation of the Obama administration’s proposed Clean Power Plan, which would place stringent regulations on coal-fired power plant emissions, has also helped to drive coal production to its lowest level in decades. Government sources predict further decline.

Ohio Valley Mushroom Farm, Acid-Mine DrainagePhoto by Jack PearceA Mushroom Farm site in North Lima, Ohio is plagued with acid mine drainage resulting from surface mining conducted in the 1980's. Eastern Ohio is home to over 1,000 abandoned underground mines.

Fifty U.S. coal companies have filed for bankruptcy since 2012. Competition and more stringent environmental regulations played a role in this decline. But, just before coal prices collapsed, speculating top producers borrowed billions to finance unwise acquisitions. Now, unable to pay loan interest and principal, they have sought bankruptcy protection to restructure US$30 billion in debt. The bankrupt companies include Arch Coal, Alpha Natural Resources, Patriot Coal and Jim Walter Resources.

Last month Peabody Energy Corp., the world’s biggest private-sector coal producer, followed suit. Peabody seeks to restructure $8.4 billion in debt. Its capitalization has fallen from $20 billion in 2011 to $38 million at the time of bankruptcy.

Amid this turmoil, many observers fear that bankrupt coal companies will be able to shift their huge liabilities for reclamation, or restoring land that has been mined, to taxpayers.

Congress passed the Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act, or SMCRA, in 1977 to prevent such a scenario. But, in my view, state and federal coal regulators have failed to ensure that coal companies have enforceable financial guarantees in place, as the law requires.

I have interacted with the coal industry for 40 years, first as a government enforcement lawyer and then litigating issues relating to coal mine reclamation cases on behalf of conservation organizations and coalfield communities. I believe that if the unfunded liabilities of bankrupt coal companies are not covered by new guarantees and additional companies seek bankruptcy protection, there is a real chance that taxpayer-funded billion-dollar bailouts will be necessary to cover their cleanup costs.

Planning for reclamation

SMCRA was designed to prevent bankrupt coal companies from foisting onto …more

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Keepers of Giants

Kenyan orphanage rescues and rehabilitates young elephants stranded by poaching, returns them to the wild

Edwin Lusichi holds degrees in theology and computer science but has spent the last sixteen years working with orphaned youngsters. He monitors their diet, health, and general well-being until they are ready to go back into the wild. You see, Lusichi’s orphans are elephants and he is an elephant-keeper.

photo of elephants at David Sheldrick Wildlife TrustPhoto by Kamweti Mutu An elephant keeper feeds a young elephant a special milk formula using coconut oil as a subsititute for elephant milk-fat.

“I came because I needed a job. But after some time it became a passion,” admits Lusichi, head keeper at the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust (DSWT) in Nairobi, Kenya. He is one of thirty-odd elephant keepers who nurture a similar number of infant elephants and rhino at any given time. 

The Trust was established in 1997 by Daphne Sheldrick in memory of her late husband, David Sheldrick, founding warden of Kenya’s Tsavo National Park. Informally known as the elephant orphanage, DSWT is one of only two foster centers in Africa that rescue and rehabilitate young elephants before returning them to the wild. (The other is the Elephant Orphanage Project in the suburbs of Lusaka, Zambia which cares for young elephants before relocating them to the Kafue National Park.)

Every morning Lusichi, 32, and his team don their green dust coats and khaki bucket hats, and take their young charges to browse in the thickets of Nairobi National Park, which surrounds the center.

Elephants calves cannot live without milk during their first three years of life. The youngest orphans have to be fed a specially-blended milk formula every three hours using gigantic bottles carted around in a wheelbarrow. As the calf's intake of vegetation increases, the frequency of milk feeds is reduced. It took Daphne Sheldrick, who was born and raised in Kenya, almost three decades to create the perfect milk formula. She ultimately determined that coconut oil is the best substitute for elephant milk-fat. 

In the evening, the elephants are escorted back to base where each one has its own sleeping stockade — sometimes the keepers stay with them overnight. “The young ones, as in under one-and-a-half years old, have keepers with them at night,” explains Lusichi. 

The baby elephants are rescued from all parts of the country after having been separated from …more

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Arctic Retreat

As Big Oil abandons the Arctic, pressure mounts on Obama to do more on climate change in the region

Sometimes it is hard to find good news on the climate. Take a quick look at a couple of today’s stories:

According to Australian researchers, five tiny Pacific islands, which are part of the Solomon islands, have completely disappeared due to rising sea levels, in what is being described as the “first scientific confirmation of the impact of climate change on coastlines in the Pacific.” Another six islands have had large swathes of land washed into the sea too.

photo of Arctic OceanPhoto by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center The US Coast Guard Cutter Healey in the Beaufort Sea as part of NASA’s ICESCAPE mission to study how climate change is impacting ocean ecosystems in the Arctic.

Elsewhere, one in five of the world’s plant species is said to be threatened with extinction, with climate change one of the factors along with farming and construction.

There is also bad news for caffeine addicts, with the news that scientists are warning that coffee is “at risk of running out by the end of the century as a result of intensive farming and climate change.”

Sometimes all this bad news seems overwhelming.

But there is good news too, which gives immense hope to those fighting Big Oil, especially in the Arctic: Big Oil is in full retreat from the region.

Once the Arctic was the seen as the last big untapped frontier for the industry. But rather than being full of black gold, the Arctic has proven to be one of the most expensive black holes for the industry ever.

Bloomberg reported this morning that after spending a whopping $2.5 billion for drilling rights in US Arctic waters, oil companies such as Shell and ConocoPhillips have quietly relinquished their rights to some 2.2 million acres. This equates to nearly 80 per cent of the leases they bought nearly a decade ago.

This is truly significant: Peter Kiernan, the lead energy analyst at The Economist Intelligence Unit told Bloomberg: “Arctic exploration has been put back several years, given the low oil price environment, the significant cost involved in exploration and the environmental risks that it entails.”

Oil giant Shell, which has already blown $8 billion on its misguided Arctic folly, relinquished 274 leases in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, although it is holding onto …more

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