Chemicals industry has already replaced these compounds with new ones that have received little scientific scrutiny
Last week, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it will ban three grease-resistant chemicals from food packaging materials like pizza box liners, microwavable popcorn bags, and sandwich wrappers. The newly banned substances all come from a family of chemicals, known as perflourinated chemicals, known to be associated with cancer, digestive ailments, and reproductive harms.
Photo by Lis Ferla
The catch? The ban only applies to perflourinated chemicals that have already largely been taken off the market, while leaving dozens of other similar chemicals on the FDA's approved list for use materials (like packaging) that come in contact with food, according to Environmental Working Group (EWG), an environmental organization.
"Industrial chemicals that pollute people's blood clearly have no place in food packaging," EWG President Ken Cook said in a statement. "This is another egregious example of how, all too often, regulatory actions under the nation’s broken chemical laws are too little and too late to protect Americans' health."
The FDA's move comes at a time when there is growing public awareness of the hazards of PFOA or C8, a perflourinated chemical that DuPont used for decades to manufacture Teflon-coated pots and pans and other goods. As I reported in Earth Island Journal’s latest issue, in October 2015 an Ohio jury awarded $1.6 million to cancer survivor Carla Bartlett, the first of over 3,000 plaintiffs who have sued DuPont over C8 contamination of drinking water supplies near DuPont's Parkersburg, West Virginia plant. DuPont had been using the chemical in its products for more than 50 years even though it knew C8 was making people sick. Legal battles against DuPont over C8 have already spanned nearly two decades, and are still continuing.
Perflourinated chemicals are remarkable for several reasons. First off, they spread easily through the environment — so much so that they've already entered the bloodstream of an astonishing number of Americans. According to a study by the Centers for Disease Control, more than 98 percent of Americans have at least one of a dozen perflourinated chemicals, including C8, in their blood. They're also extraordinarily long lasting. Unlike many chemicals, perflourinated chemicals generally …more
What the catastrophic Aliso Canyon methane leak teaches us about our reliance on fossil fuels
It’s early December, and I’m siting in a mega-church packed with more than 500 people. They’re here to listen to an update on the efforts to contain an enormous natural gas blowout that occurred more than a month before. Gas from the leak is being blown by prevailing winds right into their community of Porter Ranch, in Los Angeles County, CA.
People are mad.
Photo by Earthworks
Hundreds of families have left their homes to get away from the rotten-egg smell of the gas, and moved into temporary homes elsewhere. Children are attending other schools further from the leak, which is spewing some 110,000 pounds of methane per hour from a broken well less than a mile from the neighborhood.
Trust between the gas company, regulators, and community members seems absent.
People question what else is in the gas that might have long-term health impacts. They want to know why many are suddenly reporting headaches and bloody noses.
I’m sitting in this church because my colleague Hilary Lewis and I were invited to Porter Ranch with our infrared gas-finding camera to see what this high profile disaster actually looks like. Before we arrived, the public had no access to images or video of the gas itself, as it’s invisible to the naked eye.
We meet a local organizer in a supermarket parking lot, exit the vehicle, and even my horrible sense of smell instantly reacts to the scent of the gas more than two miles from where we stand. It’s coming from a well at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility, an 8,000-foot deep sandstone formation — a depleted oil field — that SoCalGas uses to hold vast quantities of gas. In fact, it’s one of the largest gas storage fields in the nation, comprising some 115 extraction and injection wells, some of which operate at pressures above 2,000 pounds per square inch — a hefty load for well casings over 60 years old.
We hike the hills and document the gas blowing sideways and downhill into town. Later that night, we see a plume of gas at least a mile long spanning Aliso Canyon. Of all the sites I’ve shot …more
A reflection on the men behind the siege of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Headquarters
There’s plenty to read about the Angry White Men who’ve occupied the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Headquarters in Burns, Oregon. I’ve called them “Angry White Men” because that’s all I’ve seen in the hundreds of photos published since last Saturday, when the whole thing began. Calling them anything else (they’ve been called terrorists, revolutionaries, militants, patriots, jamokes, stunted halfwits, YallQaeda, etc. ) for me, is besides the point I want to make.
Photo by Gage Skidmore
Yes, I believe that if these people were black or Muslim, they’d be dead and the refuge would be on fire. And, yes I believe that using deadly force to change anything is wrong-headed and doesn’t work. Do I have a solution for this? No, but it seems to me that the longer this goes and the more the men learn about how the world sees them, the more embarrassed they’ll be. Hopefully, sooner than later, they’ll figure out how to diffuse the situation and slink away as uneventfully as possible. Hopefully, no one on either side of this does something stupid. Hopefully, the punishment they receive will be not only what they deserve, but enough to discourage them — or anyone else — from committing similar crimes against the American people.
By referring to Ammon Bundy and his camouflaged comrades as “Angry White Men” I put them into a group that, I believe, is largely responsible for much of what we see happening in the world today. Angry White Men — not all of them police — are responsible for most of the 30,000 shootings occurring in America each year. They want to control the bodies of women, as women threaten their power. Angry White Men support any war against any group made up of people who either are non-white, non-male, or non-angry. Angry White Men oppose any efforts to protect or defend any of American’s natural resources, refusing to see any value beyond financial. For Angry White Men, holding onto the last of the power they were born …more
Projects’ true costs are being inadequately assessed, say scientists
Three of the world’s most important tropical river basins — the Amazon, the Congo and the Mekong — are experiencing an unprecedented boom in the construction of hydropower dams. According to a paper by more than three dozen scientists from universities, research institutions and conservation organizations around the world, which will be pubished tomorrow in Science magazine, these projects pose a major threat to biodiversity, including to one-third of all the world’s freshwater fish species. The authors say long-term impacts of tropical hydropower projects are rarely assessed adequately and call for better — and more transparent — planning that more accurately evaluates the full costs of these dams. Without this, the authors write, these projects will lead to species extinctions, as well as significant declines in fisheries and other “ecosystem services” on the world’s “mega-diverse” tropical rivers.
Photo by Kirk Winemiller
While most of the 838 existing dams on these river systems are relatively small, more than 450 new dams are currently planned for the Amazon, Congo and Mekong Rivers — about 75 percent of these in the Amazon. The paper’s authors contend that those planning the dams “have generally failed to assess the true benefits and costs of large hydropower projects,” leading both to financial cost overruns and underestimation of environmental and social costs. Those costs can be high — the dams take a toll on biodiversity, and damage to fish populations can threaten food security in local communities that depend on the fisheries.
As the paper’s lead author, Kirk Winemiller, Regents Professor in Texas A&M University’s Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences & Program in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, explained via email, these three tropical river basins “contain a disproportionate amount of the world’s freshwater biodiversity, including about one third of all freshwater fish species.” Further, said Winemiller, many of these rivers' “sub-basins and tributaries contain unique species found nowhere else.”
A conversation with ecofeminist Lori Gruen
Last November, the National Institutes of Health announced it would be retiring the remainder of its lab chimpanzees to sanctuaries, two years after deciding to retire all but 50. It is a decision that has many animal welfare activists thrilled, but even among them, few have more reason to celebrate than Lori Gruen. A professor of feminist, gender, and sexuality studies, environmental studies, and philosophy at Wesleyan University, Gruen has a special love for chimpanzees. She has researched and documented the history of chimpanzee experimentation in the United States, written prolifically on animal ethics as an academic and an animal welfare advocate, and interacted with our tree-climbing cousins at sanctuaries such as Chimp Haven in Louisiana, where apes are relatively free to pursue their own interests in forested enclosures.
As an ecofeminist, Gruen’s philosophical purview is not limited to Pan troglodytes but extends to all nonhumans, as well as women and other marginalized groups. Gruen’s work, as her website states, “lies at the intersection of ethical theory and practice.” She “is currently thinking about intersections of race, gender, and species, and, as always, chimpanzees.”
I spoke with Gruen over the phone one week after the NIH decision. With only rare interruptions from her rescued greyhound, we discussed what that decision means for chimpanzees and other animals–human and nonhuman.
Your work has touched on a variety of issues but it seems like you’ve had a special relationship with chimpanzees. What is it about chimpanzees that has drawn you to them?
Part of it has to do with the ways in which they’re really quite unique in their history of use, and also in the ways in which they [interact] with one another. I began thinking about and working with chimpanzees when I was working on questions about animal cognition and animal minds. I had, prior to that, been a little concerned that people paid too much attention to chimpanzees and not enough attention to other animals that were equally interesting. But it does seem that once you get to know chimpanzees they capture your attention so you can’t stop paying attention to them.
And the good news about that is that a lot of people have been captivated in that sense by chimpanzees and so …more
Steel plant under fire for impact on public health and the environment
The largest steel plant in Europe is not in Germany, the UK or France. It is not, in fact, in what could be considered an industrial heartland by any stretch. Instead, it is in southern Italy, in the ancient Greek colony of Taranto, which sprawls around a bay dotted with Italian naval warships.
Photo by mafe de baggis from Milano, Italy
In 1965, this city of fishermen and sailors was earmarked by the national government for industrial development, and the Ital Sider steel plant was built in close proximity to the city and the coastline. The plant, since then privatized and renamed Ilva, produces ten million tons of steel every year, representing 40 percent of the national production of Italy. In a region still plagued with 23 percent unemployment, ILVA has provided greatly needed jobs, but at a very high cost. The plant has had a catastrophic impact on the environment in the region and on the people living there.
According to an estimate released in 2005 by the European Pollutant Emissions Register, the Taranto's plant alone is responsible for 83 percent of emissions of dioxin in all of Italy. Local residents have to sweep red mineral dust emitted by the plant from their balconies on a regular basis. An epidemic report by the Procura di Taranto (the local prosecutor’s office) unveiled gruesome numbers: The dust causes 90 deaths a year, and leads to 650 more hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases annually. In the Paolo VI suburb, built in the 1960s to host people migrating from the countryside to work at the plant, deaths by respiratory diseases are 64 percent higher than in the rest of the city. The report also highlighted an increased incidence in tumors and cancer in infants and young people in the region. Government figures put the cancer death rate in the area at 15 percent above national levels; lung cancer rates in Taranto are up to 30 percent higher than national rates.
Disruption of soil may leach salt into waterways
A salty mystery is brewing in Carbon County, Wyoming. The brush-carpeted landscape here is home to ranchers, farmers, and the beleaguered sage grouse. It's also home to Muddy Creek, where water salinity spiked suddenly in 2009.
Photo courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey
Salinization is a global problem that can have many causes, and the oil and gas boom is making matters worse. Wastewater from fracking and failed wells can infiltrate creeks and streams, eventually making them too saline for use on crops or consumption by cattle, wildlife, and people. The brine can corrode industrial equipment, and most water treatment facilities are unable to remove it. But Muddy Creek doesn’t fit the typical scenarios, US Geological Survey soil scientist Carleton Bern says. The problem here may lie in the sheer amount of construction needed to support the oil and gas industry.
Fossil fuel companies peppered the Muddy Creek area with a total of 1,200 new wells between 2006 and 2010. Building all of those wells, pads, pipelines, and roads required tilling up mounds of salt-rich soil, which is common in semi-arid areas, including the area surrounding Muddy Creek.
In wetter climates, precipitation gradually leaches salt from the ground and out of the soils. In drier regions, however, significant salt concentrations often remain at shallow depths just below the surface. Well construction disturbs the soil, bringing the salts closer to the surface, where runoff then delivers them to streams, creeks, and rivers. Puddles can also sift downwards, carrying dissolved salts to waters at lower elevations. Streamside construction is another pathway that brings the soil into direct contact with surface water.
“A substantial fraction of the new development is [coalbed methane extraction] of the ongoing Atlantic Rim play,” Bern writes in a 2015 paper on soil disturbance, referring to oil and gas extraction efforts in Carbon County. In the BLM’s 2007 Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlantic Rim Natural Gas Field Development Project, the agency wrote that 2,000 “wells for producing CBM and conventional natural gas were projected to be drilled over a 20-year time span.” The BLM expected a total of more than 39 square miles of surface disturbance from road and well pad construction, Bern adds. To …more