Despite government crackdown, new mines are cropping up, devastating virgin forests in the Peruvian Amazon
Over the past two years, the Peruvian government has been cracking down on informal mining operations and illicit gold exports in an effort to end the environmental and social abuses related to illegal gold mining. Security forces have been raiding illegal mining camps, destroying equipment, and monitoring gold trading companies involved in buying and selling contraband gold. Yet recent reports show that these efforts have failed to curb the proliferation of new, unauthorized mines in the South American nation’s rural hinterlands. Not just that, a big chunk of this dirty gold is making its way into the United States.
Photo by Paula Dupraz-Dobias
In the southeastern Madre de Dios region, known to be one of the most bio-diverse areas on Earth, illegal mining operations continue to move deeper and deeper into virgin forests, where acres upon acres of trees are being cut down and mercury is being dumped into subsoils and rivers, exposing humans and the environment to irreversible damage.
“There has been a flurry of small [scale] gold miners, who have been dispersed, and are working independently. On the map, they look like thousands of independent miners,” says Greg Asner, who has been working with Peru’s environment ministry to aerially map the rainforests from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory, which has a lab in Lima. “The problem is still there. It’s now more diffused than ever before”.
Asner says that his research has shown that illegal gold mining was destroying the forest at twice the officially acknowledged rate. According to the Carnegie Amazon Mercury Ecosystem Project, gold mining has destroyed some 50,000 hectares in the region and, has released some 30 tons of mercury into nature.
Supply chain deviations
Just as police operations have pushed illegal miners further into the forest, stricter monitoring by customs officials has resulted it new smuggling and sales routes for the prohibited mineral.
In 2013, after a leading Madre de Dios miner, Gregoria Casas, named buyers of her gold, a Swiss refinery, Metalor, which had been purchasing gold from her contacts, halted purchases from exporters suspected of dealing with illegal gold miners. Metalor had just joined three other major Swiss gold refiners in a public-private program to …more
Keystone supporters do not have the 67 votes needed to overcome a presidential veto
President Barack Obama would veto a bill aimed at forcing construction of the contentious Keystone XL pipeline, the White House has said, setting up an immediate confrontation with the new Republican-controlled Congress.
The White House, ending weeks of speculation about its response to Republican moves on Keystone, said Obama would veto a bill introduced earlier on Tuesday that aims to take the decision over the pipeline out of his hands.
Photo by Steven Tuttle
“If this bill passes this Congress, the president wouldn’t sign it,” the White House press secretary, Josh Earnest, said.
That position locks the White House on an immediate collision course with the new Congress, after Republicans made it a first order of business to introduce a bill forcing approval of the pipeline.
The bill introduced in the Senate on Tuesday would give immediate approval to a Canadian pipeline project that has been waiting more than six years for a decision from the Obama administration.
The measure has the support of 63 senators – all 54 Republicans as well as some Democrats – enough to override a filibuster in the Senate.
But the Keystone supporters do not have the 67 votes needed to overcome a presidential veto.
Keystone supporters said the bill fast-tracking the Canadian pipeline was critical to keep crude oil moving.
“We need more pipelines to move crude at the lowest cost and in the safest, most environmentally friendly way,” John Hoeven, the North Dakota Republican introducing the bill, told a press conference. “That means pipelines like the Keystone XL are in the vital national interest of our country.”
TransCanada, the Canadian company building the pipeline, said it was encouraged by the moves in Congress. “We look forward to the debate and ultimately a decision by the US administration to build Keystone XL,” the company said in a statement.
Campaigners see the bill as a first shot in a Republican onslaught against the Democratic president’s environmental agenda – from cutting smog to fighting climate change.
“Rather than taking action to support clean energy investments that will spur innovation and create good paying jobs here at home, they have instead chosen to support the Keystone XL pipeline and the false promises …more
Proposed Florida ferry highlights tradeoffs between transportation upgrades and environmental protection
The roads in Tampa, Florida, have never been synonymous with safe and fast travel. They flood easily during summer rains, are constantly plagued by accidents, and pose numerous dangers for pedestrians.
City and county planners constantly try to find ways to get people and cargo to their destinations faster, and one recent effort got a good deal of positive attention. In February 2014, the Hillsborough County Commission approved a feasibility study for a high-speed passenger ferry that would operate out of south Tampa. In addition to lessening traffic in a county with an estimated population of 1.29 million, planners hoped the ferry would also bolster eco-friendly travel in the area.
Photo courtesy of Southwest Florida Water Management District
“A ferry commuter system will have positive effects on the water quality of Tampa Bay,” according to the ferry project website. “Ferries take cars off the roads, which reduces the nitrogen oxides emitted by auto[s] into our air, thus reducing nitrogen loading in Tampa Bay. Taking cars off the roads also reduces the oils, grease, and other pollutants that motor vehicles discharge onto our roadways, thereby reducing the pollution in storm water runoff that goes into the bay.”
Planners spent months searching for a spot where a terminal could be built to receive the ferry. After reviewing 14 different possible locations, they began investigating The Fred and Idah Schultz Preserve, a nature preserve in nearby Apollo Beach, as a possible terminal site.
In order to accommodate a ferry terminal, the site would require an access road and a parking lot. These site requirements got the attention of local birdwatchers, and Audubon of Florida raised concerns about the numerous bird sanctuaries near the Schultz Preserve that could be negatively affected by the changes a ferry would necessitate.
"We have concerns if this property is sold or transferred for a for-profit activity because that might set a very dangerous precedent for the environmental lands program for the county," Ann Paul, Tampa Bay regional coordinator at Audubon of Florida, told the press. “"We're hoping that we can continue to work with the developer to find an acceptable location where this excellent …more
Ongoing efforts to commercialize this clean energy source may lead the US to a more independent energy future
For a long time it seemed like turning the inedible parts of plants into a commercially viable biofuel, known as cellulosic ethanol, was nothing more than a pipedream. The enzymes needed to release sugars from cellulose — the fiber that forms plant structure — to be fermented into ethanol were inefficient and expensive. And the cellulose found in virtually every plant, flower, tree, grass, and bush is by its very nature evolved to withstand decay.
Photo by Dustin Oliver, on Flickr
Ethanol can be derived from sugar-based, corn-based, and cellulose-based materials. In Brazil, sugarcane is the feedstock of choice, while in the United States that designation goes to corn. The starch in corn kernels easily converts into simple sugars, with the enzyme catalyzing this process costing a mere .03-cents per gallon; the sugars are then fermented into alcohol (additives make it undrinkable). Because of the relatively low cost, corn-based ethanol has been meeting America’s demand for an alternative fuel source, especially as people drive less and fuel economy improves.
Why even bother with cellulosic ethanol?
For one, there’s the questionable carbon footprint of corn ethanol, which, depending on how it is produced, can be significantly better or significantly worse than that of petroleum. Greenhouse-gas emissions from cellulosic ethanol, on the other hand, are estimated to be roughly 86 percent less than petroleum sources. And using cellulosic materials doesn’t create a food-versus-fuel scenario.
Ramping up production of the biofuel could reduce the nation’s reliance on imported oil. In 2012, the US imported about 40 percent of the petroleum it consumed, nearly three-quarters of which fueled transportation around the country. The US government also spends millions of dollars on military support to keep oil shipping lanes open; money that could go toward domestic needs instead.
Cellulosic ethanol is renewable, clean, derived from the most abundant organic compound on Earth, and could lead the US closer to energy independence. These attributes have kept researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado focused on developing this biofuel in spite of the challenges. “We stuck it out even when oil was $25 a …more
Canada's rare temperate rainforest faces threats from logging and oil interests, but it can be saved yet
When we disembarked from our sailboat and onto smaller zodiacs, we were consumed by the surrounding landscape, floating on a still, glacier-formed channel with forested mountains flanking either side. Under the mist, we hummed forward into what appeared to be a closed estuary. Before us, the estuary opened up, exposing fields lush with tall grasses and wildflowers. The thick, heavy rainforest lay beyond. All around, Bonaparte gulls dipped into the shallow areas, scooping up freshly laid salmon eggs in their beaks as the salmon arrived by the thousands from the Pacific to spawn. We quietly floated around in the rain hoping to spot bear, while nearby waterfalls crashed down the mountainsides.
Photo by Sara Santiago
On this, my first trip to British Columbia’s Great Bear Rainforest along with philanthropists and conservation advocates, the estuary before us felt like one of the most remote and magnificent places I’d ever seen. High in the pines, several bald eagles looked on; the young freckled males chatted with one another from branches above. With so much openness and an abundance of resources, there was no conflict amongst them. After sitting and waiting quietly in the rain for a while, we disembarked from the small boats and headed for the field. As we congregated to walk inland, I looked back and spotted the movement of a grizzly through the mist shrouding the field opposite us. Deeper into the mist, our captain noticed she had three cubs alongside, watching their mother as she assessed the area for salmon.
War and Peace in the Woods:
According to Tides Canada, the Great Bear Rainforest stretches for more than 400 kilometers along the BC coast and is the “largest coastal temperate rainforest remaining on Earth” at 21 million acres. The same Tides report claims: “coastal temperate rainforests have always been rare and are considered more threatened than tropical rainforests.” Sixty percent of them are already gone.
Amidst an era of global deforestation for everything from timber and paper to clearing land for mineral extraction and palm oil plantations, the Great Bear Rainforest remains an intact and functioning ecosystem, home to endemic wildlife and native …more
Many cities and towns are worried about the threat of derailment and explosions
Ed Ruszel’s workday is a soundtrack of whirling, banging, screeching – the percussion of wood being cut, sanded, and finished. He’s the facility manager for the family business, Ruszel Woodworks. But one sound each day roars above the cacophony of the woodshop: the blast of the train horn as cars cough down the Union Pacific rail line that runs just a few feet from the front of his shop in an industrial park in Benicia, California.
photo by Sarah Craig/Faces of Fracking
Most days the train cargo is beer, cars, steel, propane, or petroleum coke. But soon two trains of 50 cars each may pass by every day carrying crude oil to a refinery owned by neighboring Valero Energy. Valero is hoping to build a new rail terminal at the refinery that would bring 70,000 barrels a day by train – or nearly 3 million gallons.
And it’s a sign of the times.
Crude by rail has increased 4,000 percent across the country since 2008 and California is feeling the effects. By 2016 the amount of crude by rail entering the state is expected to increase by a factor of 25. That’s assuming industry gets its way in creating more crude by rail stations at refineries and oil terminals. And that’s no longer looking like a sure thing.
Valero’s proposed project in Benicia is just one of many in the area underway or under consideration. All the projects are now facing public pushback – and not just from individuals in communities, but from a united front spanning hundreds of miles. Benicia sits on the Carquinez Strait, a ribbon of water connecting the San Pablo and Suisun Bays in the northeastern reaches of the San Francisco Bay Area. Here, about 20 miles south of Napa’s wine country and 40 miles north of San Francisco, the oil industry may have found a considerable foe.
The Geography of Oil
The heart of California’s oil industry is the Central Valley – 22,500 square miles that also doubles as the state’s most productive farmland. Oil …more
The ancient culinary craft of fermentation is bubbling up once again
Extracting nutrition via the bacteria and yeasts that live on the surfaces of food sources has traditionally enabled people all over the world to store seasonal abundance for leaner times. In a climate-constrained future, when the use of fossil fuels (and thus refrigeration) will need to be greatly reduced, fermentation could play a key role in preserving both our food and our cultural diversity.
Photo by Wild Fermentation
“To ferment your food,” declares American food journalist Michael Pollan, “is to lodge an eloquent protest — of the senses — against the homogenizations of flavors and food experiences. It’s a way of engaging with the world... a declaration of independence.”
That’s because this revival is not just learning how to prep and preserve cabbage: it’s also a way for people get their hands (literally) on another social narrative and activate a different relationship with life. It runs counter to an industrialized and passive consumer lifestyle “now rolling like a great undifferentiated lawn across the globe.” Fermentation requires time and intuition and participation in a transformative process where no two sauerkrauts will turn out the same. And it can bring people together in practical and surprising ways.
In England, members of Transition Plymouth, part of the worldwide Transition movement, meet regularly over their kitchen tables to chop vegetables: “Dried, tinned, bottled, cooked, irradiated, pasteurized, supermarket fare is predominantly dead food — deliberately made in order to ‘protect’ our health and enhance shelf life,” explains Colin Trier, one of the group's activists. “Our fermentation workshops have served many purposes: to reintroduce us to making our own live foods; bringing us together as a community exchanging recipes and skills; seeking out and sharing local sources of supply; and developing resilience through home preservation of much more than jam.”
Photo by Devitree